Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Red Cap’s Gift: How Tipping Tempers the Rational Power of Money

  • DANIEL LEVINSON WILK (a1)
Abstract

Modern people are obsessed with money, but the practice of tipping a waiter or chambermaid is a counterbalance against money’s tendency to infect human relations. People who tip infect money back, with nonmonetary values. This article provides a general history of tips investing money and monetary exchange with ideals such as status, dignity, waste, care, and play, in certain parts of the United States, c. 1880–1929. It also offers a case study of railroad red caps’ tips in the five years following passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; when tipping declined, it reduced red caps’ ability to invest their work with nonmonetary values.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Arnesen, Eric. Brotherhoods of Color. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
Barry, Kathleen. Femininity in Flight: A History of Flight Attendants. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.
Bates, Beth Tompkins. Pullman Porters and the Rise of Protest Politics in Black America, 1925–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Bearman, Peter. Doormen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Behind The Scenes in a Hotel. New York: The Consumers’ League of New York, 1922.
Bloch, Maurice. The Symbolism of Money in Imerina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977 [1972].
Bowen, Louise de Koven. The Girl Employed in Hotels and Restaurants. Chicago: Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago, 1912.
Brazeal, Brailsford Reese. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: Its Origin and Development. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1946.
Bryan, Helen. Martha Washington: First Lady of Liberty. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Bynum, Cornelius L. A. Philip Randolph and the Struggle for Civil Rights. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.
Cavett, Kateleen Jill Hope. Voices of Rondo: Oral Histories of Saint Paul’s Historic Black Community. Saint Paul, MN: Syren Book Company, 2005.
Chateauvert, Melinda. Marching Together: Women of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Chumley, L. S. Hotel, Restaurant, and Domestic Worker. Chicago: I.W.W. Publishing Bureau, 1919[?].
Cobble, Dorothy Sue. Dishing it Out: Waitresses and Their Unions in the Twentieth Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Custis, George Washington Parke. Recollections and Private Memoir of Washington. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1860.
Czarniawska, Barbara. Narratives in Social Science Research. London: SAGE Publications, 2004.
Dewson, Mary W. The Unstandardized Industry: Hotels. New York: National Consumer League, 1921.
Dodd, Nigel. The Sociology of Money: Economics, Reason and Contemporary Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1994.
Dublanica, Steve. Keep the Change: A Cluless Tipper’s Quest to Become the Guru of the Gratuity. New York: HarperCollins, 2010.
Ferguson, Niall. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.
Farquhar, George. The Beaux’ Stratagem. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977 [1711].
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. This Side of Paradise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995 [1920].
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Beautiful and Damned. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008 [1922].
Freud, Sigmund. The Freud Reader. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.
Graeber, David. Debt: The First Five Thousand Years. New York: Melville House Publishing, 2011.
Gregory, Chris A. Savage Money, Vol. 21. Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1997.
Guyer, Jane I., ed. Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African Communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1995.
Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Balantine Books, 1993 [1964].
Harris, William Hamilton. Keeping the Faith: A. Philip Randolph, Milton P. Webster, and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1925–37. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Hochschild, Arlie Russell. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
Humphrey, Caroline, and Hugh-Jones, Stephen, eds. Barter, Exchange, and Value: An Anthropological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Jarman, Rufus. A Bed for the Night. New York: Harper & Row, 1952.
Johnson, Carol Siri. The Life and Work of Betty Smith, Author of “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn.” Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1995.
Jones, Graham M. Trade of the Tricks: Inside the Magician’s Craft. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.
Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1969 [1949].
Levinson Wilk, Daniel. Cliff Dwellers: Modern Service in New York City, 1800–1945. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, 2005.
Love, Nat. The Life and Adventures of Nat Love, Better Known in the Cattle Country as “Deadwood Dick.” Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
Marx, Karl. Selected Writings, Simon, Lawrence, ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994 [1848, 1867].
Maurer, Bill. Mutual Life, Limited: Islamic Banking, Alternative Currencies, Lateral Reason. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Mauss, Marcel. The Gift. London: Cohen and West, 1954 [1923].
Nielsen, Georgia Panter. From Sky Girl to Flight Attendant: Women and the Making of a Union. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 1982.
Parry, Jonathan, and Bloch, Maurice, eds. Money and the Morality of Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Perata, David D. Those Pullman Blues: An Oral History of the African American Railroad Attendant. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1996.
Raibmon, Paige. Authentic Indians. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.
Reddy, William M. Money and Liberty in Modern Europe: A Critique of Historical Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Segrave, Kerry. Tipping. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1998.
Sherman, Rachel. Class Acts: Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Santino, Jack. Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle: Stories of Black Pullman Porters. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Smith, Betty. A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. New York: Perennial Classics, 1998 [1943].
Tomsky, Jacob. Heads in Beds: A Reckless Memoir of Hotels, Hustles, and So-Called Hospitality. New York: Anchor Books, 2012.
Turnbull, Andrew. Scott Fitzgerald. New York: Grove Press, 2001.
Turner, Robert E. Memories of a Retired Pullman Porter. New York: Exposition Press, 1954.
Tye, Larry. Rising from the Rails: Pullman Porters and the Making of the Black Middle Class. New York: Macmillan, 2005.
Tye, Larry. Satchel: The Life and Times of an American Legend. New York: Random House, 2009.
Veblen, Thorstein. The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 [1899].
Wright, Richard. Black Boy. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991 [1945].
Zelizer, Viviana A. The Social Meaning of Money. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Zelizer, Viviana A. Economic Lives: How Culture Shapes the Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Azar, Ofer H.What Sustains Social Norms and How They Evolve?: The Case of Tipping.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 54.1 (2004): 4964.
Azar, Ofer H. “The History of Tipping—From Sixteenth-Century England to United States in the 1910s.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 33, no. 6 (2004): 745764.
Azar, Ofer H. “The Implications of Tipping for Economics and Management.” International Journal of Social Economics 30, no. 10 (2003): 10841094.
Baker, Wayne E., and Jimerson, Jason B.. “The Sociology of Money.” American Behavioral Scientist 35, no. 6 (1992): 678693.
Belk, Russell W., and Wallendorf, Melanie. “The Sacred Meanings of Money.” Journal of Economic Psychology 11, no. 1 (1990): 3567.
Bodvarsson, Őrn B.Restaurant Tips and Service Quality: A Reply to Lynn.” Applied Economics Letters 12, no. 6 (2005): 345346.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., Luksetich, William A., and McDermott, Sherry. “Why Do Diners Tip: Rule-of-Thumb or Valuation of Service?Applied Economics 35, no. 15 (2003): 16591665.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Gibson, William A.. “Tipping and Service Quality: A Reply to Lynn,” Social Science Journal 39 (2002): 471476.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Gibson, William A.. “An Economic Approach to Tips and Service Quality: Results of a Survey.” The Social Science Journal 36, no. 1 (1999): 137147.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Gibson, William A.. “Economics and Restaurant Gratuities: Determining Tip Rates.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 56 (April 1997): 187204.
Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Gibson, William A.. “Gratuities and Customer Appraisal of Service: Evidence from Minnesota Restaurants.” The Journal of SocioEconomics 23 (1994): 287302.
Campbell, Donna M.Taking Tips and Losing Class: Challenging the Service Economy in James M. Cain’s Mildred Pierce.” In The Novel and the American Left: Critical Essays on Depression-Era Fiction, edited by Galligani Casey, Janet, 115. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004.
Crusco, April H. “The Midas Touch: The Effects of Interpersonal Touch on Restaurant Tipping.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10 (December 1984): 512515.
Davis, Fred.The Cabdriver and His Fare: Facets of a Fleeting Relationship.” American Journal of Sociology 62, no. 2 (1959): 158165.
Eiss, Paul K. “Hunting for the Virgin: Meat, Money, and Memory in Tetiz, Yucatan.” Cultural Anthropology 17, no. 3 (2002): 291330.
Foster, George M. “The Anatomy of Envy: A Study in Symbolic Behavior.” Current Anthropology 13 (April 1972): 165202.
Gueguen, Nicolas and Jacob, Celine. “Clothing Color and Tipping: Gentlemen Patrons Give More Tips to Waitresses with Red Clothes.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 38, no. 2 (2014): 275280.
Gueguen, Nicolas and Legoherel, Patrick. “Effect of Tipping of Barman Drawing a Sun on the Bottom of Customers’ Checks.” Psychological Reports 87 (2000): 223226.
Hansen, Per H. “Business History: A Cultural and Narrative Approach.” Business History Review 86 (Winter 2012): 693717.
Hart, Keith. “Heads or Tails? Two Sides of the Coin.” Man (1986): 637656.
Hart, Keith. “10 Money: One Anthropologist’s View.” A Handbook of Economic Anthropology (2005): 160.
Herrmann, Gretchen (2006). “Special Money: Ithaca Hours and Garage Sales.” Ethnology 45(2): 125141.
Hoaas, David J., and Bigler, Lyndsay. “The Relationship Between Tipping and Service Quality: The Other Side of the Equation.” Southwestern Economic Review Proceedings 32 (1995): 18.
Ingham, Geoffrey. “On the Underdevelopment of the ‘Sociology of Money’.” Acta Sociologica 41, no. 1 (1998): 318.
Ingham, Geoffrey. “Fundamentals of a Theory of Money: Untangling Fine, Lapavitsas and Zelizer.” Economy and Society 30, no. 3 (2001): 304323.
Jacob, Celine, and Gueguen, Nicolas. “Effects of Songs with Prosocial Lyrics on Tipping Behavior in a Restaurant.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 20, no. 4 (December 2010): 761763.
Lipartito, Kenneth. “Connecting the Cultural and the Material in Business History.” Enterprise and Society 14, no. 4 (2013): 686704.
Lynn, Michael. “The Relationship Between Tipping and Service Quality: A Comment on Bodvarsson and Gibson’s Article.” The Social Science Journal 37 (2000): 131135.
Lynn, Michael, and Wang, Shuo. “The Indirect Effects of Tipping Policies on Patronage Intentions Through Perceived Expensiveness, Fairness, and Quality.” Journal of Economic Psychology 39 (2013): 6271.
Lynn, Michael, Zinkhan, George M., and Harris, Judy. “Consumer Tipping: A Cross-Country Study.” Journal of Consumer Research (December 1993): 478488.
Malinowski, Branislaw. “Kula; The Circulating Exchange of Valuables in the Archipelagoes of Eastern New Guinea.” Man (1920): 97105.
Margalioth, Yoram. “The Case Against Tipping.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law 9 (2006): 117145.
Margalioth, Yoram. “The Social Norm of Tipping, Its Correlation with Inequality, and Differences in Tax Treatment Across Countries.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 11 (2010): 561588.
Maurer, Bill. “The Anthropology of Money.” Annual Review of Anthropology 35 (2006): 1536.
May, Joanne M. “Looking for Tips.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 20 (February 1980): 613.
Mordhorst, Mads. “From Counterfactual History to Counter-Narrative History.” Management & Organizational History 3:1 (2008): 526.
Romero, Patricia. “The Early Organization of the Redcaps.” Negro History Bulletin 29, no. 5 (1966): 101102, 114.
Ruffle, Bradley J. “Gift Giving with Emotions.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 39, no. 4 (1999): 399420.
Sandoval-Strausz, A. K. and Wilk, Daniel Levinson. “Princes and Maids of the City Hotel.” Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 25 (June 2005): 160185.
Shamir, Boas.Between Gratitude and Gratuity: An Analysis of Tipping.” Annals of Tourism Research 11, no. 1 (1984): 5978.
Steiner, Philippe. “Who Is Right About the Modern Economy: Polanyi, Zelizer, or Both?Theory and Society, 38, no. 1 (January 2009): 97110.
Suarez, Daniel. “Restaurant Tipping: Short-Circuiting the Morality of the Market.” Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas, Research in Economic Anthropology 29 (2009): 307339.
Verdery, Katherine. “‘Caritas”: And the Reconceptualization of Money in Romania,” Anthropology Today 11, no. 1 (1995): 37.
Zelizer, Viviana. “Fine Tuning the Zelizer View.” Economy and Society 29 (2000): 383389.
The Andover Review
Bags and Baggage
Christian Union
Conde Nast Traveler
The Critic
Forest and Stream
Forum
Gunton’s Magazine
Harper’s Weekly
The Hotel Monthly
The Hotel World
The Ladies’ Home Journal
Leisure Hour
Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine
Macmillan’s Magazine
The New York Times
The New York Post
The New Yorker
The North American Review
Outlook
Overland Monthly
Puck
The Real Estate Magazine
Scribner’s Monthly
Allegretto, Sylvia A. “Waiting for Change: Is It Time to Increase the $2.13 Subminimum Wage?” IRLE Working Paper No. 155-13 (2013), http://irle.berkeley.edu/workingpapers/155-13.pdf.
Hart, Keith. “Notes towards an anthropology of money.” Kritikos 2 (2005), http://intertheory.org/hart.htm.
Lechtenberg, Suzie. “Should Tipping Be Banned? A New Freakonomics Radio Podcast,” Freakonomics: The Hidden Side of Everything, June 3, 2013, freakonomics.com.
Lynn, Michael, tippingresearch.com.
Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. (1989), dictionary.oed.com.
Ruffle, Bradley J. “Gift Giving with Emotions,” Department of Economics, Ben-Gurion University, January 1999, http://www.bgu.ac.il/∼bradley/personal/emotions.pdf.
United States Department of Labor, www.dol.gov.
“Red Cap Investigations,” Pennsylvania Railroad Collection, Record Group 1810, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, DE.
Williams v. Jacksonville Terminal Co., 315 U.S. 386 (1942).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Enterprise & Society
  • ISSN: 1467-2227
  • EISSN: 1467-2235
  • URL: /core/journals/enterprise-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 29 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 292 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.