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Instructions for contributors

Enterprise & Society offers a forum for research on the historical relations between businesses and their larger political, institutional, social, and economic contexts. The journal aims to be international in scope. Creative studies focused on individual firms and industries and grounded in a broad historical framework are welcome, as are innovative applications of economic or management theories to business history and its contexts. Quantitative work couched in terms accessible to non-cliometricians will also be welcome. Enterprise & Society encourages submissions of business history studies that arise from collateral social scientific and humanities disciplines and from national and comparative perspectives.


E&S has moved to an all-electronic process of receiving, refereeing, and publishing articles through the ScholarOne system. Consequently please observe the following guidelines, so as to help us secure a straightforward and timely review of your work. We will ask you to rework and resubmit articles that require a large effort to prepare them for outside review.

Also, consider emailing the editor in advance to introduce yourself and to outline the project you plan to submit. Explain in a few paragraphs your article's main themes, significance and implications, and tell us why E&S would be an appropriate publication venue. If you have been in contact with the editor or an associate editor at a seminar, conference, annual meeting or elsewhere, an email can serve to renew that connection.

Many thanks,
Andrew Popp, Editor, Enterprise & Society


Manuscripts submitted to Enterprise & Society may not be under consideration elsewhere, nor may they have been published or accepted for publication. English is the language used for publication. Manuscripts must be submitted through Enterprise & Society's online submissions site.


Photographs: These should be submitted in the desired final printed size so that reduction can be avoided. The type area of a printed page is 195 (height) x 120 mm (width) and photographs, including their legends, should not exceed this area. Photographs should be of sufficiently high quality with respect to detail, contrast, and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process. These files should be submitted with a resolution of at least 300 dpi.

Line drawings: Please provide these as clear, sharp images, suitable for reproduction when submitted. No additional artwork, redrawing, or typesetting will be done. Faint and grey shading or stippling will be lost upon reproduction and should be avoided. Where various shadings are used within one figure please ensure that it is easy to differentiate between them, using standard shadings (see the hard copy of the journal for examples). There should be sufficient white space between lines and dots to ensure the areas will not fill in and look grey. If stippling is used, this should be made up of clear black dots with visible white space between them. Ensure that the size of the lettering is in proportion with the overall dimensions of the drawing. These files should be submitted with a resolution of at least 1200 dpi.

Electronic submission of figures: Figures must be saved at a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch at the final printed size for grayscale figures and photographs, and 1200 pixels per inch for black and white line drawings. Failure to follow these guides could result in complications and delays. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide.

Figure legends: These should be included at the end of the manuscript text. Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure. Common abbreviations and others in the preceding text need not be redefined in the legend.


Enterprise & Society supports fair and accurate use of language, and the editors encourage authors to adopt a writing style sensitive to gender and other issues beyond the personal pronoun. Please refer to Enterprise & Society's style guidelines for further information.

Author Biography

On the first page of your submitted manuscript please provide a short biography. The bio should be no more than two lines.

Footnote Citations

Enterprise & Society follows the Chicago Manual of Style. Please use full citation only in the Bibliography, and insert short form references in endnotes. Do not use bottom-of-the-page footnotes and do not use social science citation (in-text parentheses).


Book [for bibliography]:
Churella, Albert. From Steam to Diesel: Managerial Customs and Organizational Capabilities in the Twentieth-Century American Locomotive Industry, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998, 231.

Short form reference [for endnote]: Churella, From Steam to Diesel, 197.

Edited work [bibliography]:
Smith, James, ed., Companies in Perspective, New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1996, iv.

Short form [endnote]:
Smith, Companies, 14.

Essay in edited work [bibliography] :
Rice, Bonnie. "How Compaq Did It," in Companies in Perspective, ed. James Smith, New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1996, 12-45, quotation at p. 16.

Short form [endnote]:
Rice, "Compaq," in Companies, ed. Smith, 16.

Journal article [bibliography]:
Pursell, Carroll. "The Cover Design: Women Inventors in America," Technology and Culture 22 (July 1981): 545-50.

Short form [endnote]:
Pursell, "The Cover Design," 547.

For the Bibliography, please create separate alphabetical lists of: Books, Articles and Chapters, Newspapers and Magazines, Unpublished Materials, and Archives.

Bibliography of Works Cited

Each submission should be accompanied by a bibliography, the purpose of which is to provide readers with a conveniently collated source list. It should include only sources actually cited in the article, and should generally not list individual items in archival collections, magazines, or newspapers. If many different sources are used, material may be separated into categories.

Language Editing Services

Contributions written in English are welcomed from all countries. Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the editor and any reviewers. Cambridge offers a service which authors can learn about here. Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge published journal.

Open Access Policies

Please click here for information on our open access policies, compliance with major finding bodies, and guidelines on depositing your manuscript in an institutional repository.

Permissions for Illustrations and Figures

Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions.


It is a condition of publication that authors grant an exclusive license to Cambridge University Press. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be disseminated as widely as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications, provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Cambridge University Press is acknowledged as the publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Cambridge Journals, authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication, you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Cambridge University Press ("CUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication, CUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that CUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Online ISSN 1467-2235 - Print ISSN 1467-2227

Copyright © 2014 Business History Conference

  1. Double space everything – text, inset quotes, bibliography and endnotes.
  2. Observe Chicago Manual of Style format for bibliography and citations. No social science inserted references are acceptable. For endnotes, please reference your full bibliographical citations in short form, as, Zinsser, Writing Well, 22, where the full citation reads Zinsser, William K, On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Non-fiction, New York: Collins, 2006.
  3. When you go to the E&S online submission site, be prepared to include at least three separate files:
  • a title page with your name and contact information
  • an abstract of up to 150 words, headed by the article's title (you paste this into a box on one of the screens)
  • the article (title and text only), followed by a bibliography, followed by endnotes (these will be converted to page keyed footnotes during production). All notes should be produced with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) as superscripts; we do not use the alternative Roman forms (i, ii, iii)

    You may need to send additional files if you have tables, figures, or illustrations. Each type should be uploaded as a separate file. Be certain that no personal identification accompanies these items.

    The E&S submission site also has a place for authors to paste in (or compose) a cover letter, which can be an effective way to introduce or re-introduce your work.

    The abstract will go to the invited referees, to help them decide whether to participate in reviewing your article. Nothing with your name on it will go to the referees, however, and referees' names will also be kept confidential. We will strive to have three referees' reports on each manuscript we send out for review, and we expect to provide you referees' assessments within 90 days after our requests for evaluations.

    Manuscripts will be returned to authors for "repairs" prior to review/refereeing if:
  • they are not double-spaced throughout, lack a bibliography or endnotes, or use incorrect citation formats
  • they are forwarded without separate files for title page and abstract
  • they have substantial stylistic deficiencies (see below)
  1. Stylistic issues.

    Note: This section is chiefly intended for junior scholars or colleagues outside history submitting an article to E&S for the first time. However, it may also be useful for more experienced historians to review their prose in light of the following items.

    Extensive copyediting of scholarly manuscripts is costly and slows the publication process. We hope E&S authors will pay careful attention to the following matters in advance of submission.
  2. Passive voicing is not acceptable and authors must root it out. The passive voice defers causality, responsibility and agency, and is appropriate only when an author genuinely cannot attribute these three to one of the relevant parties or organizations. The classic political/corporate version of this is: "Mistakes were made." Saying this sets aside accounting for and explaining the mistakes (when and by whom, at a minimum). Review your manuscript to locate passive voice constructions and reframe them into active voice sentences. For the preceding example, a fix could be: "The board of directors erred in this situation." or "Vice-president Drudge committed the key mistakes."
  3. Strive in your writing to give action/agency to your subjects, not least by seeking strong verbs and minimizing use of flat and weak verb forms (is, was, were, had, do, did).
    Please do not start sentences with "And" or "But"; this is casual writing. There are many alternatives: yet, moreover, however, instead, in addition, etc.
  4. Avoid serial prepositional phrases. Example: "Critical information about the possibilities of product development for international markets of significant scale with acceptable financials needed to be gathered by the company." Overloads of prepositional phrases do not make engaging reading. Better perhaps: "Company agents sought to gather critical information about product development possibilities for large-scale, international, and financially-credible markets."
    Prepositional phrases often can be replaced with possessives. "The earliest major rivals of the PRR" can be recast as "The PRR's earliest major rivals."
  5. Be certain that your essay has what William Germano, citing Konstantin Stanislavski, calls a "throughline" (in From Dissertation to Book, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005 – a guide well worth owning).

    A throughline is an arc of argument and evidence that carries the reader forward from your first paragraph to the final lines. It is a bit of dramatic styling that puts a hook into the reader's mind and pulls him or her into your universe, your research, your claims and findings. Narratives, even the most formally analytical of them, need to have a throughline or a trajectory, because as authors we want to connect with readers. What deeply interests you as the author has to be made interesting and accessible to your clients, the readers. Vague and overlong constructions (the 10-15 line sentence with multiple sub-clauses) are obstructive. Rare are the scholars whose work is so brilliant that they can present it to readers packaged in dense and difficult prose. Equally, hardly any readers are eager to engage presentations that seem to be empirical reports from the archives: detailed, bland, unassuming, essays that lack sustained efforts to engage readers in terms of scholarly significance.

    Creating a throughline involves making claims up front, pursuing them through the arc of the essay, documenting them and perhaps indicating countervailing claims and evidence. Creating a throughline also requires concluding paragraphs that show clearly and gracefully how and why your interpretation and understanding merit serious consideration, if not instant assent.

    In developing this approach, authors will want to set out their essay's thematic situation at the beginning of their story and should delineate the changed situation in the conclusion. In between, explain to your reader (the educated non-specialist) what took place in between that brought about those changes, using dates as markers for the throughline. Also, help readers recognize the contingency of outcomes by noting, where appropriate, alternative paths, countervailing forces, disagreements and conflicts among the actors or stakeholders.

    One device to advance the throughline is to employ dates at the beginning of sentences, particularly in introductory or concluding matter.

    "In 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower asked members of Congress to reduce regulation of railroads. Seven years later, President John F. Kennedy sought broad deregulation of railroads as well as airlines and trucks. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson urged subordinates to make deregulation part of efforts to create a new Department of Transportation. By mid-1960s, the idea of deregulation had emerged as part of the institutional office of the President."

    Using dates here advances a line of action. Also, putting dates at the beginning of the sentence clears the way for declarative, energetic sentences consisting of nouns, verbs, and objects.
  6. Be as clear as you can about what you're attempting to do. Bill Germano says it well: "For academic writers, the lure of implied meanings is irresistible." and "What's clear to you may not be clear to anyone else." Before submission, do try out your essay on colleagues and other friends willing to assist you. Ask them to read and react; suggestions scribbled on hard-copy drafts can be especially valuable. As well, read your essay aloud to yourself, so as to get a sense of its throughline and its rhythm. You'll notice when it's straying, where there are overlong sentences, where more or less information is needed. Even better, read your essay aloud to one or more helpers, especially if you're new to scholarly publishing. If intelligent colleagues are willing to be honest and tell you that here, there or wherever, the text doesn't sell the argument, or the example seems not to support the claim, your work will profit. Yes, such precise, critical assistance is difficult to find, but taking these steps makes it less likely that your submission will be returned in a few days, rejected.
  7. Specific to US practices, which E&S employs, enterprises are persons under the law and thus they are singular when you refer to them with pronouns. "The company and its finances" NOT "the railroad and their business"… It is correct, though, to write of "the railroads and their businesses." Similarly "management" is singular, whereas "managers" are plural. A Board of Directors is singular (Board governs number, not the plural prepositional object, Directors), but separately both Boards and Directors are plural. Where possible find the full names of those responsible for actions; where sources cannot provide names, try something like "Members of the board voted 6-3…"
  8. Punctuation matters. We do not have staff at E&S to fix authors' scattered commas, absent commas, or faulty use of semi-colons and colons. Published authors are professional writers, and professionals manage these little marks effectively. The Chicago Manual of Style may be tedious, but it is tremendously valuable.
  9. Always have a copy of William Strunk and E. B. White, The Elements of Style [New York: Longman, 1999, 4th ed.], somewhere close to where you write and revise. Try to re-read it every year or two. Among the many virtues of this short, punchy guide to effective formal writing is its attack on over-writing, wordiness, excessive blithering, and such (which the preceding phrase exemplifies). For S&W, every word, phrase, sentence and paragraph needs to be doing some work to get your points across, your evidence in front of readers (at the right place in the throughline), and your conclusions linked to issues of significance and to implications for further thinking and research.

    Other key resources for writing style include: William Zinsser, On Writing Well, New York: Collins, 2006, and Claire K. Cook, Line by Line: How to Improve Your Own Writing, New York: Harper Perennial, 1994.

Enterprise & Society aims to be a venue for first-quality research in business history and, as part of that intention, we seek contributions written in a clear and graceful manner. Deficient writing undermines fine research, just as thin research is little enhanced by elegant phrasing. All of us helping to edit and publish E&S will deeply appreciate authors' efforts to write well just as fully as we cherish their innovative and insightful research projects.

Preparing your manuscript
  1. Follow the Instructions to Authors regarding the format of your manuscript and references.
  2. Prepare your manuscript, including tables, using a word processing program and save it as a .doc, .rtf or .eps file. All files in these formats will be converted to .pdf format upon submission. When naming your files, please use simple filenames and avoid special characters and spaces. If you are a Macintosh user, you must also type the three-letter extension at the end of the file name you choose (e.g. .doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .ppt, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .mov).
  3. Prepare your figures at publication quality resolution, using applications capable of generating high-resolution .tif files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for half-tone artwork). The printing process requires your figures to be in this format if your paper is accepted and printed. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide. For online submission, please also prepare a second version of your figures at low-resolution for use in the review process; these versions of the figures can be saved in .jpg, .gif, .tif or .eps format.
  4. For INITIAL submission, it is preferable that you insert the low-resolution versions of the figures and tables into the word processing but you can also upload these versions as separate files.
  5. When inserting figures into the text of your manuscript, please make sure they are readable; many figures contain tiny characters (such as numbers on a chart or graph) and if these are not easily readable in the text document, they will most likely be illegible.
  6. Acknowledgements should be uploaded as a separate document file.
  7. Prepare any other files as supplementary material. One such file should contain a full cover page with authors and their affiliations. Other supplementary material, such as appendices or data files may be submitted and can be marked for review. The permitted formats for these files are the same as for manuscripts and figures. Other file types, such as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets may be uploaded and will be converted to .pdf format.
Submitting your manuscript

Now that your files are ready, visit the online submission web site.

  1. First, you will need to log into the system.
  • If you know your login details (i.e. you have submitted or reviewed a manuscript on this system before), use your User ID and Password to log on.
  • If you do not know your login details, check to see if you are already registered by clicking on the "Check for existing account" button and following the on-screen instructions. An e-mail will be sent to you if you have an account. This is also the way to get your password if you have forgotten it. If you are not already registered, you can register by clicking on the "Create a new account" button on the login screen and following the on-screen instructions.
  • If you have trouble finding manuscripts or have other problems with your account do not create another account. Instead, please contact Manuscript Central Customer Support.
  1. To submit a new manuscript, go to the "Author Center," choose "Submit a New Manuscript," and then follow the on-screen instructions. There are seven screens for you to follow to submit your manuscript, many screens involving several steps. A vertical list of the screens will be at the left hand of each page. You move from one step to the next by clicking on the "Next" button at the lower right hand corner. Once you fill out each screen successfully, a green check mark will appear next to the numbers in the left hand column. To return to earlier screens in the submission process you will need to click on the screen title in the left hand column.
  2. The first screen asks you to enter the type of file you are submitting. Click on the dropdown list item, "Manuscript." Then enter the title, running head (short title for page headers), and the abstract (cut and paste), and finish by clicking on the appropriate section of the License to Publish block.
  3. The second screen asks you to offer at least two and up to four keywords. A sample list is given in the left hand box. Highlight any that fits your needs, then click on "ADD"; each keyword will be copied into the list at the right. You may enter keywords not on the list, of course. Finish by clicking on "Next."
  4. The third screen is where you enter your author information. If there are multiple authors for your submission, please designate one as the "Corresponding Author," to whom outgoing messages will be sent. Click "Next."
  5. Page four asks for your cover letter, which you may cut and paste or attach as a Word file using the Browse function. The cover letter should introduce the work at hand and suggest why you think it would be a valuable contribution to Enterprise and Society. On this page also, please note the numbers of figures and tables the submission includes and whether it has been previously submitted to the journal, then respond to the remaining questions. Click "Next."
  6. Screen five is the place where you attach files from your own computer.
  • Click on the "Browse" button and locate the document you want to upload. Double click on the document's file title to place it in a box at the left.
  • Select the document's file type from the pull-down menu. The designation choices include figure, table, and title page, but your manuscript text is the "Main Document." Once you have attached at least a title page and the text (which should not include your name anywhere), you can proceed to submission.
  • Click on the "Upload Files" button to submit your files. If you are uploading your manuscript file, and it is in one of the formats specified above, it will be automatically converted to a .pdf file for peer review. As this is happening a box will appear noting that the .pdf conversion is in process.
  • When the uploading is complete, a box will appear, "File Details." Click on "Save" to confirm the upload of the group of files. This will return you to Screen Six. Click "Next."
  1. The final step is reviewing the information you have filled in and checking the files you have submitted, now in their PDF format. At the bottom of Screen Seven will be a "Review and Submit' box with a red "X" on the left. Click on the PDF button inside the box and the server, after grinding away for a bit, will display your documents as they will be delivered to referees. Please scan through the full document, and if all has gone well, close the PDF display by clicking on the "X" in the screen's upper right corner. This will return you to Screen Seven and a green check-mark will now sit to the left of "Review and Submit." Now, click on the blue "Submit" button on the lower left. A popup box will appear, asking whether you're sure you wish to submit now. Click "OK" and you're done. A final Submission confirmation box will appear. Print this out for your reference, as it will contain the unique Manuscript ID number for your submission.
  2. After these steps are completed, you will receive an automatic e-mail confirmation stating that your manuscript was successfully submitted. This e-mail will also repeat the assigned manuscript number, which is used in all correspondence.
  3. If you return to your "Author Center," you will notice that your newly submitted manuscript can be found in the "Submitted Manuscripts" area. The status of your manuscript can be checked by returning to the Author Center and clicking on the Manuscript ID in the right hand box.

Submitting a revised manuscript

  1. Log on to the online submission web site as before and, in the "Author Center," click on "Manuscripts to be Revised." You will then see the title of any manuscripts awaiting revision.
  2. If you click on the manuscript title you will reach the "File Manager" and you can upload the files that constitute your revised manuscript (to facilitate the production process, it is essential that you upload your revised manuscript as a .doc or .rtf file, and not in .pdf format).
  3. If you click on "View comments/respond" you will see the editor's letter to you together with the referees' comments. You may cut and paste your responses into the text areas at the bottom of the screen.

IMPORTANT. If your paper goes on to be accepted, your images will be required as high-resolution .tif files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for half-tone artwork). For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide. Please note that publication of your manuscript will not proceed until figures suitable for reproduction are received.

Getting help
If you experience any problems during the online submission process, please use the 'Author Help' function, which takes you to specific submission instructions, or 'Get Help Now', which takes you to the Frequently Asked Questions page. Alternatively, contact the Manuscript Central support line by email ( or telephone (+1 434 817 2040 x167).