Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-dfw9g Total loading time: 0.365 Render date: 2022-08-17T08:25:37.289Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 September 2017

AMY HINSLEY*
Affiliation:
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
DAVID L. ROBERTS
Affiliation:
Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, Marlowe Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
*
*Correspondence: Dr Amy Hinsley email: amy.hinsley@zoo.ox.ac.uk

Summary

The equitable sharing of benefits from natural resources is a key target of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Trade in its native species is one way in which a country can potentially benefit from its natural resources, and even small-scale traders can now access global markets online. However, little is known about the extent of benefit sharing for many products, and the extent to which the appropriate processes and permits are being used. We surveyed online trade in a lucrative and widely sold product in Southeast Asia (horticultural orchids) to assess the extent of access and benefit sharing. In total, 20.8% (n = 1120) of orchid species from the region were being sold. Although seven out of ten countries were trading, five had very little or no trade in their native species, and the majority of recently described endemic species being traded from non-range states had no reported Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora exports from their country of origin. We suggest that addressing access and benefit-sharing gaps requires wider recognition of the problem, coupled with capacity building in the countries currently benefitting least: Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. The priority should be to increase botanical capacity and enable these countries to better control the commercialization and trade of their native species.

Type
Non-Thematic Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

ASEAN (2013) The Association of Southeast Asian Nations [www document]. URL http://www.asean.org/asean/asean-member-statesGoogle Scholar
Averyanov, L., Cribb, P., Phan Ke, L. & Nguyen, T.H. (2003) Slipper Orchids of Vietnam. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
Broad, S., Mulliken, T. & Roe, D. (2001) The nature and extent of legal and illegal trade in wildlife. In: The Trade in Wildlife: Regulation for Conservation, ed. Oldfield, S., pp. 322. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
CITES (2013) Numbers of species listed in the CITES Appendices as of October 2013 [www document]. URL http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/species.phpGoogle Scholar
CBD (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity. Adopted 5 June 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [www document]. URL http://www.cbd.int/convention/text/Google Scholar
CBD (2002) Decision VI/9, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 2002–2010. Sixth Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 6). The Hague, The Netherlands [www document]. URL http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7183Google Scholar
CBD (2012) Decision X/17, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 2011–2020. Tenth Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 10). Nagoya, Japan [www document] URL http://www.cbd.int/gspc/strategy.shtmlGoogle Scholar
Courchamp, F., Angulo, E., Rivalan, P., Hall, R., Signoret, L., Bull, L. & Meinard, Y. (2006) Rarity value and species extinction: the anthropogenic allee effect. PLoS Biology 4: e415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chong, K.Y., Tan, H.T.W. & Corlett, R.T. (2009) A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore. Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
Cockel, C. (2013) Bulbophyllum coweniorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3 [www document]. URL www.iucnredlist.orgGoogle Scholar
Drury, R. (2009) Reducing urban demand for wild animals in Vietnam: examining the potential of wildlife farming as a conservation tool. Conservation Letters 2: 263270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dutton, A.J., Hepburn, C. & Macdonald, D.W. (2011) A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile. PLoS One 6: e21243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Entwistle, A., Atay, S., Byfield, A. & Oldfield, S. (2002) Alternatives for the bulb trade from Turkey: a case study of indigenous bulb propagation. Oryx 36: 333341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FAO (2009) International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the Food and Agricultural Organization [www document]. URL ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0510e/i0510e.pdfGoogle Scholar
FloraHolland (2013) Facts and Figures 2013 [www document]. URL http://www.floraholland.com/media/2460310/Kengetallen-EN-2013.pdfGoogle Scholar
Gordon, I. & Ayiemba, W. (2003) Harnessing butterfly biodiversity for improving livelihoods and forest conservation: the Kipepeo Project. The Journal of Environment & Development 12: 8298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruss, O., Rungruang, N., Yongyouth, Y. & Dionisio, I. (2014) A new and very distinct species of the genus Paphiopedilum from north-Lao is described as Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum. Orchideen Journal. 2, 1, 111 [www document]. URL http://orchideen-journal.de/permalink/GRUSS_RUNGRUANG_YONYOUTH_CHAISURIYAKUL_DIONISIO_Paphiopedilum.pdfGoogle Scholar
Hajramurni, A. (2011) Indonesia encouraged to grow orchids. The Jakarta Post, 25 October 2011 [www document]. URL http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/10/25/indonesia-encouraged-grow-orchids.htmlGoogle Scholar
Henne, G. & Fakir, S. (1999) NBI–Ball agreement: a new phase in bioprospecting. Biotechnology and Development Monitor 39: 1821.Google Scholar
Hinsley, A. (2011) Notes on the trade of orchids in the Cardamom Mountains, Pursat and Koh Kong Provinces. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2011: 1113.Google Scholar
Hinsley, A., Verissimo, D. & Roberts, D.L. (2015) Heterogeneity in consumer preferences for orchids in international trade and the potential for the use of market research methods to study demand for wildlife. Biological Conservation 190: 8086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinsley, A., Lee, T.E., Harrison, J.R. & Roberts, D.L. (2016a) Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media. Conservation Biology 30: 10381047.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinsley, A., Nuno, A., Ridout, M., John, F.A.V. St. & Roberts, D. L. (2016b) Estimating the extent of CITES noncompliance amongst traders and end-consumers; lessons from the global orchid trade. Conservation Letters. Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1111/conl.12316.Google Scholar
ITC (2014) Trade Map, International Trade Centre, Geneva [www document]. URL www.intracen.org/marketanalysisGoogle Scholar
Jepson, P., Ladle, R.J. & Sujatnika, (2011) Assessing market-based conservation governance approaches: a socio-economic profile of Indonesian markets for wild birds. Oryx 45: 482491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krigas, N., Menteli, V. & Vokou, D. (2014) The electronic trade in Greek endemic plants: biodiversity, commercial and legal aspects. Economic Botany 68: 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laird, S. & Lisinge, E. (1998) Benefit-sharing case studies: Aristocladus korupensis and Prunus africana. Submission by the United Nations Environment Programme Item 16.3. Presented at: Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Fourth meeting. Bratislava, Slovakia, 415 May 1998.Google Scholar
Lamxay, V. (2009) Case Study on Orchid Exports from the Lao PDR: Recommendations for Using the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora to Increase Sustainable Orchid Trade. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC.Google Scholar
Lavorgna, A. (2014) Wildlife trafficking in the Internet age. Crime Science 3: 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lybbert, T., Barrett, C. & Narjisse, H. (2002) Market-based conservation and local benefits: the case of argan oil in Morocco. Ecological Economics 41: 125144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyons, J. & Natusch, D. (2011). Wildlife laundering through breeding farms: illegal harvest, population declines and a means of regulating the trade of green pythons (Morelia viridis) from Indonesia. Biological Conservation 144: 30733081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malanes, M. (2014) Orchid collecting grows into big business. Inquirer North Luzon, 28 May 2014 [www document]. URL http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/606069/orchid-collecting-grows-into-big-businesGoogle Scholar
McGough, N., Roberts, D., Brodie, C. & Kowalczyk, J. (2006) CITES and Slipper Orchids. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
Protocol, Nagoya (2011) The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Adopted 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan [www document]. URL http://www.cbd.int/abs/doc/protocol/nagoya-protocol-en.pdfGoogle Scholar
Nijman, V. (2010) An overview of international wildlife trade from Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 11011114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F. & Skvoretz, J. (2010) Node centrality in weighted networks: generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks 32: 245251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phelps, J., Carrasco, L.R. & Webb, E.L. (2014) A framework for assessing supply-side wildlife conservation. Conservation Biology 28: 244257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phelps, J. & Webb, E.L. (2015) “Invisible” wildlife trades: Southeast Asia's undocumented illegal trade in wild ornamental plants. Biological Conservation 186: 296305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phyu, A.S. (2014) Orchid smuggling putting rare species at risk, warn experts. Myanmar Times, 10 March 2014 [www document]. URL http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/9796-orchid-smuggling-putting-rare-species-at-risk-warn-experts.htmlGoogle Scholar
Roe, D., Milledge, S., Mulliken, T., Mremi, J., Mosha, S. & Grieg-Gran, A. (2002) Making a Killing or Making a Living. Wildlife Trade, Trade Controls and Rural Livelihoods. London, UK: IIED; and Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC.Google Scholar
Richerzhagen, C. & Holm-Mueller, K. (2005) The effectiveness of access and benefit sharing in Costa Rica: implications for national and international regimes. Ecological Economics 53: 445460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richerzhagen, C. (2011) Effective governance of access and benefit-sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 22432261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sajeva, M., Augugliaro, C., Smith, M.J. & Oddo, E. (2013) Regulating internet trade in CITES species. Conservation Biology 27: 429430.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schroeder, D. (2007) Benefit sharing: it's time for a definition. Journal of Medical Ethics 33: 205209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schuiteman, A. & De Vogel, E. (2000) Orchid Genera of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Leiden, The Netherlands: Nationaal Herbarium Nederland.Google Scholar
Secretariat of the CBD (2008) Access and Benefit-Sharing in Practice: Trends in Partnerships across Sectors. Technical Series No. 38. Montreal, Canada: UNEP.Google Scholar
Secretariats of CITES and the CBD (2016) Notification to the Parties 2016/044. Regional joint preparatory meetings of CITES and CBD representatives prior to the upcoming meetings of the respective Conference of the Parties [www document]. URL https://cites.org/sites/default/files/notif/E-Notif-2016-044.pdfGoogle Scholar
Seidenfaden, G. (1992) The orchids of Indochina. Opera Botanical 114: 1502.Google Scholar
Shirey, P.D. & Lamberti, G.A. (2011) Regulate trade in rare plants. Nature 469: 465467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silveira, P., Schuiteman, A., Vermeulen, J., Sousa, A., Silva, H., Paiva, J. & De Vogel, E. (2008) The orchids of Timor: checklist and conservation status. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 157: 197215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ten Kate, K. & Laird, S. (2000) Biodiversity and business: coming to terms with the ‘grand bargain’. International Affairs 76: 241264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trommetter, M. (2005) Biodiversity and international stakes: a question of access. Ecological Economics 53: 573583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
UNEP-WCMC (2013) A guide to using the CITES trade database. Version 8. October 2013. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre [www document]. URL http://trade.cites.org/cites_trade_guidelines/en-CITES_Trade_Database_Guide.pdfGoogle Scholar
UNEP-WCMC (2017) CITES Trade Database, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UK [www document]. URL https://trade.cites.orgGoogle Scholar
USDA (2014) Floriculture Crops. 2013 Summary. United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service. June 2014 [www document]. URL http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/nass/FlorCrop/2010s/2014/FlorCrop-06-19-2014.pdfGoogle Scholar
Vermeulen, J.J. & Lamb, A. (2011) Endangered even before formally described: Bulbophyllum kubahense n. sp., a beautiful and assumedly narrowly endemic orchid from Borneo. Plant Systematics and Evolution 292: 5153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vermeulen, J.J., Phelps, J. & Thavipoke, P. (2014) Notes on Bulbophyllum (Dendrobiinae; Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae): two new species and the dilemmas of species discovery via illegal trade. Phytotaxa 184: 012022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vermeylen, S. (2007) Contextualizing ‘fair’ and ‘equitable’: the San's reflections on the Hoodia benefit-sharing agreement. Local Environment 12: 423436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Viet Nam News (2010) Biotechnology needed for orchid industry. Viet Nam News, 2 October 2010 [www document]. URL http://vietnamnews.vn/agriculture/204286/biotechnology-needed-for-orchid-industry-.htmlGoogle Scholar
Volk, G. & Richards, C. (2011) Horticultural value of wild genetic resources – introduction to the workshop. HortScience 46: 14361437.Google Scholar
WCSP (2013) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew [www document]. URL http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/Google Scholar
Williams, S.J., Jones, J.P.G., Annewandter, R. & Gibbons, J.M. (2014) Cultivation can increase harvesting pressure on overexploited plant populations. Ecological Applications 24: 20502062.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bank, World (2014) World development indicators: 2012 GNI per capita, Atlas method [www document]. URL http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CDGoogle Scholar
5
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Assessing the extent of access and benefit sharing in the wildlife trade: lessons from horticultural orchids in Southeast Asia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *