Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wg55d Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T08:50:22.678Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Governance of biodiversity in Poland before and after the accession to the EU: the tale of two roads

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 September 2012

KRZYSZTOF NIEDZIAŁKOWSKI*
Affiliation:
Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Waszkiewicza 1, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
JOUNI PAAVOLA
Affiliation:
Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
BOGUMIŁA JĘDRZEJEWSKA
Affiliation:
Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Waszkiewicza 1, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland
*
*Correspondence: Krzysztof Niedziałkowski e-mail: kniedz@ibs.bialowieza.pl

Summary

Accession of the Central and Eastern European countries to the European Union involved considerable institutional changes in the field of environmental governance that undermined existing policy practices. Such changes in biodiversity governance are examined through two case studies from Poland concerning road development schemes in ecologically sensitive areas. Documentary material and semi-structured interviews are analysed and interpreted in light of the policy arrangement approach and historical institutionalism. After the EU accession there was a rapid shift from a government-monopolized arrangement towards a multi-level governance arrangement with regard to conflicts between infrastructure and natural areas. Previously, the government controlled practically all aspects of environmental policymaking, despite potential routes for greater involvement of non-state actors. Only the formal rules of Natura 2000 and environmental impact assessment, guarded by a coalition of powerful supranational bodies, non-governmental organizations and scientists, changed the pattern of governmental policy-making. New policy arrangements have increased capacity and legitimacy in the implementation of the European Union rules.

Type
THEMATIC SECTION: Biodiversity Governance in Central and Eastern Europe
Copyright
Copyright © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anon. (2008) Trwają mediacje w sprawie obwodnicy przez Dolinę Rospudy. Rzeczpospolita 9 January 2008 [www document]. URL http://www.ekonomia24.pl/artykul/82379.htmlGoogle Scholar
Arts, B. & Leroy, P., eds (2006) Institutional Dynamics in Environmental Governance. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, S. (2003) The dynamics of European Union biodiversity policy: interactive, functional and institutional logics. Environmental Politics 12: 2341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, R.G. (2004) Further up the learning curve: NGOs from transition to Brussels. Environmental Politics 13 (1): 194215.Google Scholar
Bohdan, A. (2006) Rospuda: ostrzeżenie Komisji Europejskiej [www document]. URL http://pracownia.org.pl/aktualnosci,219Google Scholar
Börzel, T., ed. (2009) Coping with Accession to the European Union. New Modes of Environmental Governance. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Börzel, T. & Buzogány, A. (2010) Environmental organisations and the Europeanisation of public policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of biodiversity governance. Environmental Politics 19 (5): 708735.Google Scholar
Carmin, J. & Vandeveer, S.D. (2004) Enlarging EU environments: Central and Eastern Europe from transition to accession. Environmental Politics 13 (1): 324.Google Scholar
Committee on Petitions (2007) Report on the fact finding mission to Poland ‘Via Baltica’ (Warszawa-Bialystok-Augustow) [www document]. URL http://bankwatch.org/documents/petitions_committee_report_ffm_0607.pdfGoogle Scholar
Dubel, K., ed. (1990) Monografia Parku Krajobrazowego ‘Góra Św. Anny’. Opole, Poland: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Powstańców Śląskich w Opolu.Google Scholar
EC (2007) Press release IP/07/369. European Commission takes Poland to court to protect threatened wildlife habitats [www document]. URL http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/369Google Scholar
EC (2009) Press release IP/09/566. Environment: Commission closes two nature cases against Poland [www document]. URL http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/566Google Scholar
EIA Act (2008) Ustawa z dnia 3 października 2008 r. o udostępnianiu informacji o środowisku i jego ochronie, udziale społeczeństwa w ochronie środowiska oraz o ocenach oddziaływania na środowisko, Official Journal No. 199, item 1227 [www document]. URL http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20081991227Google Scholar
Fairbrass, J. & Jordan, A. (2001) Protecting biodiversity in the European Union: national barriers and European opportunities? Journal of European Public Policy 8: 499518.Google Scholar
Fray, D. (2008) Trasa przez Rospudę bez pozwolenia na budowę, Rzeczpospolita 16 December 2008 [www document]. URL http://www.rp.pl/artykul/234583.htmlGoogle Scholar
Gliński, P. & Koziarek, M. (2007) Nature protection NGOs in Poland: between tradition, professionalism and radicalism. In: Protecting Nature. Organizations and Networks in Europe and the USA, ed. van Koppen, C.S.A. & Markham, W.T., pp. 187212. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
Grodzińska-Jurczak, M. & Cent, J. (2011) Expansion of nature conservation areas: problems with Natura 2000 implementation in Poland? Environmental Management 47 (1): 1127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grzeszak, A. (1998) Ekolog schodzi z drzewa. Polityka 30: 2526.Google Scholar
Guttenbrunner, S. (2009) Poland: when environmental governance meets politics. In: Coping with Accession to the European Union. New Modes of Environmental Governance, ed. Börzel, T., pp. 148168. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Hallstrom, L.K. (2004) Eurocratising enlargement? EU elites and NGO participation in European environmental policy. Environmental Politics 13 (1): 175193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hicks, B. (2004) Setting agendas and shaping activism: EU influence on Central and Eastern European environmental movements. Environmental Politics 13 (1): 216233.Google Scholar
Instytut Ochrony Środowiska (1990) Opinia dotycząca wpływu na środowisko przyrodnicze przebiegu autostrady Gliwice-Wrocław na obszarze Parku Krajobrazowego ‘Góra Św. Anny’. Warszawa, Poland: Instytut Ochrony Środowiska.Google Scholar
Izdebski, H. (2004) Samorząd terytorialny. Podstawy ustroju i działalności. Warszawa, Poland: LexisNexis.Google Scholar
Jabłońska, E., Pawlikowski, P., Jarzombkowski, F., Chormański, J., Okruszko, T. & Kłosowski, S. (2011) Importance of water level dynamics for vegetation patterns in a natural percolation mire (Rospuda fen, NE Poland). Hydrobiologia 674 (1): 105117.Google Scholar
Jancar-Webster, B. (1998) Environmental movement and social change in the transition countries. Environmental Politics 7 (1): 6990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, A. (1999) Introduction: the construction of a multilevel environmental governance system. Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 17 (1): 117.Google Scholar
Jordan, A., Wurzel, R.K.W. & Zito, A. (2005) The rise of ‘new’ policy instruments in comparative perspective: has governance eclipsed government? Political Studies 53 (3): 477496.Google Scholar
Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów (2009) Rozporządzenie zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych, przedłożone przez ministra infrastruktury, 20 October 2009 [www document]. URL http://www.poprzedniastrona.premier.gov.pl/s.php?doc=2017Google Scholar
Karaczun, Z. (1998) Udział społeczny w procesie ocen oddziaływania na środowisko. In: Poradnik przeprowadzania ocen oddziaływania na środowisko, ed. Lenart, W. & Tyszecki, A., pp. 141146. Gdańsk, Poland: Ekokonsult.Google Scholar
Keulartz, J. & Leistra, G., eds (2008) Legitimacy in European Nature Conservation Policy: Case Studies in Multilevel Governance. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
Kluvánková-Oravská, T., Chobotová, V., Banaszak, I., Slavikova, L. & Trifunovova, S. (2009) From government to governance for biodiversity: the perspective of central and Eastern European transition countries. Environmental Policy and Governance 19 (3): 186196.Google Scholar
Kronenberg, J. & Bergier, T. (2012) Sustainable development in a transition economy: business case studies from Poland. Journal of Cleaner Production 26 (0): 1827.Google Scholar
Kuijken, E. (2003) Construction of the Via Baltica Motorway: conflicts with nature values in protected areas (North-East of Poland). Report of the on-the-spot appraisal (14–15.10.2003) [www document]. URL http://pracownia.org.pl/pliki/prof.echart-kuijken_construction_of_the_via_baltica_motorway_conflicts_with_nature_values_in_protected_areas_2003.pdfGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, A. (2008) Experiences with participatory conservation in post-socialist Europe. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 4: 179186.Google Scholar
Niedziałkowski, K., Paavola, J. & Jędrzejewska, B. (2012) Participation and protected areas governance: the impact of changing influence of local authorities on the conservation of the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Ecology and Society 17 (1): 2 [www document]. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04461-170102Google Scholar
Newig, J. & Fritsch, O. (2009) Environmental governance: participatory, multi-level - and effective? Environmental Policy and Governance 19 (3): 197214.Google Scholar
NGO Statement (2007) Stanowisko organizacji pozarządowych w sprawie referendum dotyczącego obwodnicy Augustowa, zaplanowanego w województwie podlaskim na 20 maja 2007 r. [www document]. URL http://pracownia.org.pl/aktualnosci,302Google Scholar
North, D. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Paavola, J. (2004) Protected areas governance and justice: theory and the European Union's Habitats Directive. Environmental Sciences 1 (1): 5977.Google Scholar
Paavola, J., Gouldson, A. & Kluvánková-Oravská, T. (2009) Interplay of actors, scales, frameworks and regimes in the governance of biodiversity. Environmental Policy and Governance 19 (3): 148158.Google Scholar
Peters, B.G., Pierre, J. & King, D.S. (2005) The politics of path dependency: political conflict in historical institutionalism. The Journal of Politics 67 (4): 12751300.Google Scholar
Radecki, W., ed. (2010) Instytucje prawa ochrony środowiska - Geneza, rozwój, perspektywy. Warszawa, Poland: Difin.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R.A. W. & Marsh, D. (1992) Policy networks in British politics: a critique of existing approaches. In: Policy Networks in British Government, ed. Marsh, D. & Rhodes, R.A.W., pp. 126. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Ryan, R. (2006) Poland could lose EU funds for environment breaches [www document]. URL http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,2155801,00.htmlGoogle Scholar
Sabatier, P.A. (1988) An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein. Policy Sciences 21 (2): 129168.Google Scholar
Sanders, D. (2002) Behaviouralism. In: Theory and Methods in Political Science, ed. Marsh, D. & Stoker, G., pp. 4564. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Schrling, I. (1998) Stanowisko Grupy Zielonych Parlamentu Europejskiego ws. Góry Św. Anny, Zielone Brygady 8: 8.Google Scholar
SISKOM (2012) Krótka historia ‘budowy’ obwodnicy Augustowa [www document]. URL http://siskom.waw.pl/siskom-dzialania-rospuda.htmGoogle Scholar
Steinmo, S., Thelen, K. & Longstreth, F., eds (1992) Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Swolkień, O. (1996) Afera autostradowa. Zielone Brygady 2: 10.Google Scholar
Swolkień, O. (1998) Bitwa o Górę św. Anny. Zielone Brygady 7: 14.Google Scholar
Tickle, A. & Clarke, R. (2000) Nature and landscape conservation in transition in central and south-eastern Europe. European Environment 10 (5): 211219.Google Scholar
Turwid, K. (1990) Nie będzie burzy nad autostradą? Wiadomości Górnośląskie 12: 15.Google Scholar
Van der Zouwen, M. (2006) Dynamics in nature policy practices across the European Union. In: Insitutional Dynamics in Environmental Governance, ed. Arts, B. & Leroy, P., pp. 139159. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
Van Koppen, C.S.A. & Markham, W.T., eds (2007) Protecting Nature. Organizations and Networks in Europe and the USA. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
Voivodship National Council in Opole (1998) Resolution of the Voivodship National Council in Opole No. 24/193/88 of 26 May 1998.Google Scholar
WAB (1998) Góra Świętej Anny. Kalendarium Wydarzeń [www document]. URL http://pracownia.org.pl/dzikie-zycie-numery-archiwalne,2212,article,3922Google Scholar
WAB (2009) Rospuda. Kalendarium wydarzeń [www document]. URL http://pracownia.org.pl/rospuda-kalendarium-wydarzenGoogle Scholar
Wajrak, A. & Medek, J. (2009) Rospuda ocalona. Gazeta Wyborcza 24 March 2009 [www document]. URL http://wyborcza.pl/1,83128,6417107,Rospuda_ocalona.htmlGoogle Scholar
Weale, A., Pridham, G., Cini, M., Konstadakopulos, D., Porter, M. & Flynn, B. (2000) Environmental Governance in Europe: An Ever Closer Ecological Union? Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Weber, N. & Christophersen, T. (2002) The influence of non-governmental organisations on the creation of Natura 2000 during the European Policy process. Forest Policy and Economics 4 (1): 112.Google Scholar
Wurzel, R.K.W. (2008) European Union environmental policy and Natura 2000. In: Legitimacy in European Nature Conservation Policy: Case Studies in Multilevel Governance, ed. Keulartz, J. & Leistra, G., pp. 251282. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar