Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-2rjgt Total loading time: 0.397 Render date: 2022-12-08T02:45:20.474Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Heterogeneity in NTFP quality, access and management shape benefit distribution in an Amazonian extractive reserve

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 November 2013

V. ZEIDEMANN
Affiliation:
School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, 204 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410, USA
K. A. KAINER*
Affiliation:
School of Forestry Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 210 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410, USA Center for Latin American Studies, Tropical Conservation and Development Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 36211-5530, USA
C. L. STAUDHAMMER
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, 407 Biology Building, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
*Correspondence: Dr K. Kainer Tel: +1 352 846 0833 e-mail: kkainer@ufl.edu

Summary

Extractive reserves are conservation units that are concurrently expected to sustain subsistence and cash economies of reserve residents, often through use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has been central to many Amazonian reserves and resident livelihoods therein, due to its basin-wide distribution, significance in global markets, and potential for sustainable use and forest conservation. Yet, do the benefits of this and other NTFPs extend to all extractive reserve residents? A livelihood survey, structured interviews, and Brazil nut inventories from 2008 to 2010, randomly sampling the widely dispersed households and corresponding forests across the three regions of Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve (RDAER), revealed significant social and ecological heterogeneity among RDAER regions. There were differences in Brazil nut stand access, individual tree characteristics (including crown form and marginally, and fruit production), stand and tree management, multiple household characteristics that shape resident investment and dependence on NTFPs, and the contribution of Brazil nut to forest-based income. If Brazil nut and other NTFPs are to reconcile conservation and development in forest communities, then policies to regulate and promote NTFP use must integrate the socioecological heterogeneity inherent in these forest products and within reserve polygons.

Type
Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahenkan, A. & Boon, E. (2010) Assessing the impact of forest policies and strategies on promoting the development of non-timber forest products in Ghana. Journal of Biodiversity 1 (2): 85102.Google Scholar
Allegretti, M.H. (1990) Extractive reserves: an alternative for reconciling development and environmental conservation in Amazonia. In: Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps toward Sustainable Use of the Amazonian Rain Forest, ed. Anderson, A.B., pp. 253264. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Allegretti, M.H. (2002) A Construção Social de Políticas Ambientais: Chico Mendes e o Movimento dos Seringueiros. In: Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentável, p. 827. Brasília, Brazil: Universidade de Brasília.Google Scholar
Ankersen, T. & Barnes, G. (2004) Inside the polygon: emerging community tenure systems and forest resource extraction. In: Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation Through Sustainable Management?, ed. Zarin, D., Putz, F.E., Schmink, M. & Alavalapati, J.R.R., pp. 253264. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Arnold, J.E.M. & Ruiz-Pérez, M. (2001) Can non-timber forest products match tropical conservation and development objectives? Ecological Economics 39 (3): 437447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Assies, W. (1997) Going Nuts for the Rainforest. Non-timber Forest Products, Forest Conservation and Sustainability in Amazonia, pp. vii96. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Thela Publishers.Google Scholar
Barros, F.B., Varela, S.A.M., Pereira, H.M. & Vicente, L. (2012) Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8: 37 [www document]. URL http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/37 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belcher, B., Ruíz-Pérez, M. & Achdiawan, R. (2005) Global patterns and trends in the use and management of commercial NTFPs: implications for livelihoods and conservation. World Development 33 (9): 14351452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernard, H.R. (2000) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, p. 789. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
Cardoso, C.A.S. (2002) Extractive Reserves in Brazilian Amazonia: Local Resources Management and the Global Political Economy, p. 259. Burlington, VT, USA: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Cavendish, W. (2000) Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of rural households: evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development 28 (11): 19792003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CIFOR PEN (2008) PEN Prototype Questionnaire version 4.4. Poverty Environment Network Project, Center for International Forestry Research [www document]. URL http://www.cifor.org/pen/research-tools/the-pen-prototype-questionnaire.html Google Scholar
Coomes, O.T., Barham, B.L. & Takasaki, Y. (2004) Targeting conservation-development initiatives in tropical forests: insights from analyses of rain forest use and economic reliance among Amazonian peasants. Ecological Economics 51: 4764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cotta, J.N., Kainer, K.A., Wadt, L.H.O. & Staudhammer, C.L. (2008) Shifting cultivation effects on Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) regeneration. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 2835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cronkleton, P., Bray, D.B. & Medina, G. (2011) Community forest management and the emergence of multi-scale governance institutions: lessons for REED+ development from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia. Forests 2: 451473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunha, C.C. (2010) Reservas extrativistas: institucionalização e implementação no estado brasileiro dos anos 1990. Dissertation. Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 308 pp.Google Scholar
Duchelle, A.E., Cronkleton, P., Kainer, K.A., Guanacoma, G. & Gezan, S. (2011) Resource theft in tropical forest communities: implications for non-timber management, livelihoods, and conservation. Ecology and Society 16 (1): 4 [www document]. URL http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss1/art4/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duchelle, A.E., Kainer, K.A. & Wadt, L.H.O. (2013) Is certification associated with better forest management and socioeconomic benefits? A comparative analysis of three certification schemes applied to Brazil nuts in Western Amazonia. Society and Natural Resources 0: 119.Google Scholar
Escobal, J. & Aldana, U. (2003) Are nontimber forest products the antidote to rainforest degradation? Brazil nut extraction in Madre de Dios, Peru. World Development 31 (11): 18731887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomes, C.V.A. (2009) Twenty years after Chico Mendes: extractive reserve's expansion, cattle adoption and evolving self-definition among rubber tappers in the Brazilian Amazon. Dissertation. Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA: 231 pp.Google Scholar
ICMBio (2011) Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, Brasil [www document]. URL http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/biodiversidade/unidades-de-conservacao/biomas-brasileiros.html.Google Scholar
IUCN (2012) IUCN Protected Areas Categories System. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland [www document]. URL http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_quality/gpap_pacategories/ Google Scholar
Janse, G. & Ottitsch, A. (2005) Factors influencing the role of non-wood forest products and services. Forest Policy and Economics 7: 309319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kainer, K.A., Wadt, L.H.O., Gomes-Silva, D.A.P. & Capanu, M. (2006) Liana loads and their association with Bertholletia excelsa fruit and nut production, diameter growth and crown attributes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 147154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kainer, K.A., Wadt, L.H.O. & Staudhammer, C.L. (2007) Explaining variation in Brazil nut production. Forest Ecology and Management 250: 244255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kusters, K., Achdiawan, R., Belcher, B. & Pérez, M.R. (2006) Balancing development and conservation? An assessment of livelihood and environmental outcomes of nontimber forest products trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Ecology and Society 11 (2): 20 [www document]. URL http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art20/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahapatra, A.K., Albers, H.J. & Robinson, E.J.Z. (2005) The impact of NTFP sales on rural households’ cash income in India's fry decidous forest. Environmental Management 35 (3): 258265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maske, M., Mungole, A., Kamble, R., Chaturvedi, A. & Chaturvedi, A. (2011) Impact of non timber forest produces (NTFP's) on rural tribes economy in Gondia District of Maharashtra, India. Archives of Applied Science Research 3 (3): 109114.Google Scholar
McElwee, P.D. (2008) Forest environmental income in Vietnam: household socioeconomic factors influencing forest use. Environmental Conservation 35 (2): 147159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MMA (2003) Projeto realização de estudos preliminares e formulação de uma proposta técnica para a implantação de um mosaico de unidades de conservação no Médio Xingu. Report. ISA and IPAM, Brasília, DF, Brazil.Google Scholar
Mori, S.A. & Prance, G.T. (1990) Taxonomy, ecology, and economic botany of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. and Bonpl.: Lecythidaceae). Advances in Economic Botany 8: 130150.Google Scholar
Newton, P., Endo, E.S. & Peres, C.A. (2011) Determinants of livelihood strategy variation in two extractive reserves in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Environmental Conservation 39 (2): 97110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pattanayak, S.K. & Sills, E.O. (2001) Do tropical forests provide natural insurance? The microeconomics of non-timber forest product collection in the Brazilian Amazon. Land Economics 77 (4): 595612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peres, C.A. & Baider, C. (1997) Seed dispersal, spatial distribution and population structure of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) in Southeastern Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13 (4): 595616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peres, C.A., Baider, C., Zuidema, P.A., Wadt, L.H.O., Kainer, K.A., Gomes-Silva, D.A.P., Salomão, R.P., Simões, L.L., Franciosi, E.R.N., Valverde, F.C.G.R., Shepard, G.H. Jr., Kanashiro, M., Coventry, P., Yu, D.W., Watkinson, A.R. & Freckleton, R.P. (2003) Demographic threats to the sustainability of Brazil nut exploitation. Science 302: 21122114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Persha, L., Agrawal, A. & Chhatre, A. (2011) Social and ecological synergy: local rulemaking, forest livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation. Science 331: 16061608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pires, J.M. & Prance, G.T. (1985) The Vegetation Types of the Brazilian Amazon. New York, NY, USA: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Rocha, C.G.S., da Silva, P.A., Carvalho, S.A. & Salgado, I. (2005) Diagnóstico sócio-econômico da Reserva Extrativista Riozinho do Anfrísio. Report. LAET and UFPa, Altamira, PA, Brazil.Google Scholar
Salafsky, N. & Wollenberg, E. (2000) Linking livelihoods and conservation: a conceptual framework and scale for assessing the integration of human needs and biodiversity. World Development 28 (8): 14211438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salisbury, D.S. & Schmink, M. (2007) Cows versus rubber: changing livelihoods among Amazonian extractivists. Geoforum 38: 12331249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SAS (2004) SAS statistical software, version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA [www document]. URL http://support.sas.com/software/92/index.html Google Scholar
Schwartzman, S. (1991) Deforestation and popular resistance in Acre; from local movement to global network. The Centennial Review 25: 2.Google Scholar
Scoles, R. & Gribel, R. (2011) Population structure of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) stands in two areas with different occupation histories in the Brazilian Amazon. Human Ecology 39 (4): 455464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shackleton, S. & Shackleton, C. (2004) The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: a review of evidence from South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 658664.Google Scholar
Shone, B.M. & Caviglia-Harris, J.L. (2006) Quantifying and comparing the value of non-timber forest products in the Amazon. Ecological Economics 58: 249267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staudhammer, C.L., Wadt, L.H.O. & Kainer, K.A. (2013) Tradeoffs in basal area growth and reproduction shift over the lifetime of a long-lived tropical species. Oecologia 173 (1): 4557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoian, D. (2005) Making the best of two worlds: rural and peri-urban livelihood options sustained by nontimber forest products from the Bolivian Amazon. World Development 33 (9): 14731490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takasaki, Y., Barham, B.L. & Coomes, O.T. (2010) Smoothing income against crop flood losses in Amazonia: rain forest or rivers as a safety net? Review of Development Economics 14 (1): 4863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
te Velde, D.W., Rushton, J., Schreckenberg, K., Marshall, E., Edouard, F., Newton, A. & Arancibia, E. (2006) Entrepreneurship in value chains of non-timber forest products. Forest Policy and Economics 8: 725741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A., Bojö, J., Sjaastad, E. & Berg, G.K. (2007) Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor. Forest Policy and Economics 9: 869879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Velasquez, C., Ramos, A., Maretti, C., Feitosa, T., Souza, A.P. & Schwartzman, S. (2006) Relatório do Seminário ‘Perspectivas da Terra do Meio’. Report. ISA, WWF, CPT, FVPP and ED, Altamira, PA, Brazil.Google Scholar
Wadt, L.H.O., Kainer, K.A. & Gomes-Silva, D.A.P. (2005) Population structure and nut yield of a Bertholletia excelsa stand in Southwestern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 211: 371384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wadt, L.H.O., Kainer, K.A., Staudhammer, C.L. & Serrano, R.O.P. (2008) Sustainable forest use in Brazilian extractive reserves: natural regeneration of Brazil nut in exploited populations. Biological Conservation 141: 332346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zuidema, P.A. & Boot, R.G.A. (2002) Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon: impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18: 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zuidema, P.A. (2003) Demography and management of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa). Scientific Series 6, PROMAB, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia.Google Scholar
9
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Heterogeneity in NTFP quality, access and management shape benefit distribution in an Amazonian extractive reserve
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Heterogeneity in NTFP quality, access and management shape benefit distribution in an Amazonian extractive reserve
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Heterogeneity in NTFP quality, access and management shape benefit distribution in an Amazonian extractive reserve
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *