Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effort reduction and the large fish indicator: spatial trends reveal positive impacts of recent European fleet reduction schemes

  • GEORG H. ENGELHARD (a1), CHRISTOPHER P. LYNAM (a1), BERNARDO GARCÍA-CARRERAS (a1), PAUL J. DOLDER (a1) and STEVEN MACKINSON (a1)...

Summary

The large fish indicator (LFI), or ‘proportion of fish greater than 40 cm length in bottom trawl surveys,’ is a frequently debated indicator of Good Environmental Status in European regional seas. How does the LFI respond to changes in fishing pressure? This question is addressed here through analysis of fine-scale spatial trends in the LFI within the North Sea, compared between two periods of contrasting fisheries management: 1983–1999 and 2000–2012, respectively, before and after the onset of the European Union's fleet reduction scheme. Over the entire period, the LFI has decreased in large parts of the North Sea. However, most of the decline was from 1983–1999; since 2000 the LFI has improved in much of the North Sea, especially in UK waters. Comparison with international effort data shows that those western areas where the LFI has improved correspond with regions where otter trawl effort has decreased since 2000 (and previously was highest in the 1990s), and also with decreases in beam trawl effort. This study provides strong support that recent European effort reduction schemes are now beginning to result in an improved ecosystem state as indicated by the regional-scale improvement in the LFI.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effort reduction and the large fish indicator: spatial trends reveal positive impacts of recent European fleet reduction schemes
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effort reduction and the large fish indicator: spatial trends reveal positive impacts of recent European fleet reduction schemes
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effort reduction and the large fish indicator: spatial trends reveal positive impacts of recent European fleet reduction schemes
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Corresponding author

*Correspondence: Georg H. Engelhard Tel: +44 1502 527747 Fax: +44 1502 513865 e-mail georg.engelhard@cefas.co.uk

References

Hide All
Abernethy, K.E., Trebilcock, P., Kebede, B., Allison, E.H. & Dulvy, N.K. (2010) Fuelling the decline in UK fishing communities? ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 10761085.
Baudron, A.R., Needle, C.L., Rijnsdorp, A.D. & Marshall, C.T. (2014) Warming temperatures and smaller body sizes: synchronous changes in growth of North Sea fishes. Global Change Biology 20: 10231031.
Beare, D.J., Burns, F., Greig, A., Jones, E.G., Peach, K., Kienzle, M., McKenzie, E., Reid, D.G. (2004) Long-term increases in prevalence of North Sea fishes having southern biogeographic affinities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 284: 269278.
Blanchard, J.L., Andersen, K.H., Scott, F., Hintzen, N.T., Piet, G. & Jennings, S. (2014) Evaluating targets and trade-offs among fisheries and conservation objectives using a multispecies size spectrum model. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 612622.
Catchpole, T.L., Frid, C.L.J. & Gray, T.S. (2005) Discards in North Sea fisheries: causes, consequences and solutions. Marine Policy 29: 421430.
Cushing, D.H. (1980) The decline of the herring stocks and the gadoid outburst. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39: 7081.
Daan, N. (1978) Changes in cod stocks and cod fisheries in the North Sea. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 172: 3957.
Daan, N., Gislason, H., Pope, J.G. & Rice, J.C. (2005) Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing? ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 177–18.
Dulvy, N.K., Rogers, S.I., Jennings, S., Stelzenmüller, V., Dye, S.R. & Skjoldal, H.R. (2008) Climate change and deepening of the North Sea fish assemblage: a biotic indicator of warming seas. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 10291039.
EC (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environment policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union L164: 1940.
EC (2010) Commission Decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (2010/477/EU). Official Journal of the European Union L232: 1424.
Eigaard, O.R., Marchal, P., Gislason, H. & Rijnsdorp, A.D. (2014) Technological development and fisheries management. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 22: 156174.
Ellis, J.R., Cruz-Martínez, A., Rackham, B.D. & Rogers, S.I. (2005) The distribution of chondrichthyan fishes around the British Isles and implications for conservation. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science 35: 119.
Engelhard, G.H. (2008) One hundred and twenty years of change in fishing power of English North Sea trawlers. In: Advances in Fisheries Science 50 Years on from Beverton and Holt, ed. Payne, A., Cotter, J. & Potter, T., pp. 125. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Engelhard, G.H., Ellis, J.R., Payne, M.R., ter Hofstede, R. & Pinnegar, J.K. (2011) Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 580591.
Engelhard, G.H., Righton, D.A. & Pinnegar, J.K. (2014) Climate change and fishing: a century of shifting distribution in North Sea cod. Global Change Biology 20: 24732483.
Fung, T., Farnsworth, K.D., Reid, D.G. & Rossberg, A.G. (2012) Recent data suggest no further recovery in North Sea Large Fish Indicator. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69: 235239.
Fung, T., Farnsworth, K.D., Shephard, S., Reid, D.G. & Rossberg, A.G. (2013) Why the size structure of marine communities can require decades to recover from fishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series 484: 155171.
Garstang, W. (1900) The impoverishment of the sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 6: 169.
Greenstreet, S.P.R., Holland, G.J., Fraser, T.W.K. & Allen, V.J. (2009) Modelling demersal fishing effort based on landings and days absence from port, to generate more useful indicators of ‘activity’. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 886901.
Greenstreet, S., Robinson, L., Piet, G., Craeymeersch, J., Callaway, R., Reiss, H., Ehrich, S., Kröncke, I., Fraser, H., Lancaster, J., Jorgensen, L. & Goffin, A. (2007) The ecological disturbance caused by fishing in the North Sea. Fisheries Research Services Collaborative Report 04/07, Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
Greenstreet, S.P.R., Rogers, S.I., Rice, J.C., Piet, G.J., Guirey, E.J., Fraser, H.M. & Fryer, R.J. (2011) Development of the EcoQO for the North Sea fish community. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 111.
Greenstreet, S.P.R., Spence, F.B., Shanks, A.M. & McMillan, J.A. (1999) Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas: patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. II. Trends in fishing effort in the North Sea by UK registered vessels landing in Scotland. Fisheries Research 40: 107124.
Holt, J., Hughes, S., Hopkins, S., Wakelin, S.J., Holliday, N.P., Dye, S., González-Pola, C., Hjøllo, S.S., Mork, K.A., Nolan, G., Proctor, R., Read, J., Shammon, T., Sherwin, T., Smyth, T., Tattersall, G., Ward, B. & Wiltshire, K.H. (2012) Multi-decadal variability and trends in the temperature of the northwest European continental shelf: a model-data synthesis. Progress in Oceanography 106: 96117.
Homrum, E. í, Hansen, B., Jónsson, S.Þ., Michalsen, K., Burgos, J., Righton, D., Steingrund, P., Jakobsen, T., Mouritsen, R., Hátún, H., Armannsson, H. & Joensen, J.S. (2013) Migration of saithe (Pollachius virens) in the Northeast Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science 70: 782792.
Houghton, R.G. & Flatman, S. (1981) The exploitation pattern, density dependent catchability and growth of cod in the west-central North Sea. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39: 271287.
Hunter, E., Berry, F., Buckley, A.A., Stewart, C. & Metcalfe, J.D. (2006) Seasonal migration of thornback rays and implications for closure management. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 710720.
ICES (2012) Manual for the International Bottom Trawl Surveys. Series of ICES Survey Protocols, SISP 1-IBTS VIII, Copenhagen, Denmark: 68 pp
Jennings, S., Alvsvåg, J., Cotter, A.J.R., Ehrich, S., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Jarre Teichmann, A., Mergardt, N., Rijnsdorp, A.D. & Smedstad, O. (1999) Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas: patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. III. International trawling effort in the North Sea: an analysis of spatial and temporal trends. Fisheries Research 40: 125134.
Jennings, S. & Kaiser, M. (1998) The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 34: 201352.
Jennings, S., Kaiser, M.J. & Reynolds, J.D. (2001) Marine Fisheries Ecology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Jones, R. & Hislop, J.R.G. (1978) Changes in North Sea haddock and whiting. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 172: 5871.
Kenny, A.J., Skjoldal, H.R., Engelhard, G.H., Kershaw, P.J. & Reid, J.B. (2009) An integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of human pressures and environmental forcing on the status of Large Marine Ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography 81: 132148.
Kerby, T.K., Cheung, W.W.L. & Engelhard, G.H. (2012) The United Kingdom's role in North Sea demersal fisheries: a hundred year perspective. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 22: 621634.
Modica, L., Velasco, F., Preciado, I., Soto, M. & Greenstreet, S.P.R. (2014) Development of the large fish indicator and associated target for a Northeast Atlantic fish community. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 24032415.
Pinnegar, J.K., Hutton, T.P. & Piacenti, V. (2006) What relative seafood prices can tell us about the status of stocks. Fish and Fisheries 7: 219226.
R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0 [www document]. URL http://www.R-project.org/
Righton, D., Quayle, V.A., Hetherington, S. & Burt, G. (2007) Movements and distribution of cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern North Sea and English Channel: results from conventional and electronic tagging experiments. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 87: 599613.
Rijnsdorp, A.D., Buys, A.M., Storbeck, F. & Visser, E.G. (1998) Micro-scale distribution of beam trawl effort in the southern North Sea between 1993 and 1996 in relation to the trawling frequency of the sea bed and the impact on benthic organisms. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 403419.
Rijnsdorp, A.D., Poos, J.J., Quirijns, F.J., HilleRisLambers, R., de Wilde, J.W. & Den Heijer, W.M. (2008) The arms race between fishers. Journal of Sea Research 60: 126138.
Shephard, S., Fung, T., Rossberg, A.G, Reid, D.G., Greenstreet, S.P.R. & Warnes, S. (2013) Modelling recovery of Celtic Sea demersal fish community size-structure. Fisheries Research 140: 9195.
Shephard, S., Gerritsen, H.D., Kaiser, M.J., Truszkowska, H.S. & Reid, D.G. (2011a) Fishing and environment drive spatial heterogeneity in Celtic Sea fish community size structure. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 21062113.
Shephard, S., Reid, D.G. & Greenstreet, S.P.R. (2011b) Interpreting the large fish indicator for the Celtic Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 19631972.
Skinner, J.A. (2009) The changing distribution of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus in the North Sea: effects of fishing effort and environmental variation over the last century. MSc Thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
STECF (2013) Evaluation of Fishing Effort Regimes in European Waters. Part 2 (STECF-13-21). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, EUR 26327 EN, JRC86088, doi: 10.2788/95715.
ter Hofstede, R. & Rijnsdorp, A.D. (2011) Comparing demersal fish assemblages between periods of contrasting climate and fishing pressure. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 11891198.
Ungfors, A., Bell, E., Johnson, M.L., Cowing, D., Dobson, N.C., Bublitz, R. & Sandell, J. (2013) Nephrops fisheries in European waters. Advances in Marine Biology 64: 247314.
Villasante, S. (2010) Global assessment of the European fishing fleet: an update. Marine Policy 34: 663670.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Engelhard supplementary material
Engelhard supplementary material 1

 Word (25 KB)
25 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed