Skip to main content Accessibility help

From eco-catastrophe to zero deforestation? Interdisciplinarities, politics, environmentalisms and reduced clearing in Amazonia


Brazil's rate of deforestation has declined by more than 70% since 2004, a dynamic unimaginable even a decade ago. Even the worst drought in more than 100 years (2010) produced a flat clearing profile from 2009–2010, an unexpected result, since dry periods usually have clearing spikes. While deforestation continues throughout the tropics (and Amazonia), and the recent change in Brazil's Forest Code has produced a modest increase in deforestation, there are significant processes that are slowing clearing and fostering woodland recovery. This paper outlines the multiplicities and interdisciplinarities of political ecologies, policies, politics scientific approaches and technologies that have moderated forest conversion and shaped Amazonia's unusual, and unusually effective development and conservation conjunctures in Brazil's post-authoritarian period. New institutional framings, ideologies, political decentralization, globalizations and an expanded arena for new social movements and civil society provided the context for this transformation. Changing environmental institutions, discourses and the relatively redistributive social pact that underpinned President Ignacio (Lula) da Silva's administration had a significant role in promoting more resilient land uses, monitoring, compliance and new markets, while regional social movements and national and international commodity boycotts affected more damaging ones. Finally, other forms of payment for environmental services, such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and REDD+ are changing the value of standing forests. This paper describes how complex interdisciplinarities shaped the politics, policies and practices that slowed forest clearing. However, Amazonia's politics are extremely dynamic: destabilizing processes, violence and indifferent national leadership could still reverse this remarkable turnaround.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      From eco-catastrophe to zero deforestation? Interdisciplinarities, politics, environmentalisms and reduced clearing in Amazonia
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      From eco-catastrophe to zero deforestation? Interdisciplinarities, politics, environmentalisms and reduced clearing in Amazonia
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      From eco-catastrophe to zero deforestation? Interdisciplinarities, politics, environmentalisms and reduced clearing in Amazonia
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Dr Susanna Hecht e-mail:
Hide All
Acevedo-Marin, R. & Castro, E. (1997) Negros do Trombetas. Belém, Brazil: UFPA.
Agrawal, A. (2005) Environmentalities. Durham, NC, USA: Duke University Press.
Aldrich, S.P., Walker, R.T., Arima, E.Y., Caldas, M.M., Browder, J.O. & Perz, S. (2006) Land-cover and land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon: smallholders, ranchers, and frontier stratification. Economic Geography 82: 265288.
Alencar, A., Nepstad, D. & Diaz, M.D.V. (2006) Forest understory fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and non-ENSO years: area burned and committed carbon emissions. Earth Interactions 10: 117.
Almeida, P.D. (2007) Defensive mobilization. Popular movements against economic adjustment policies in Latin America (Reprinted from Realidad: Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, vol. 86, pp. 177–189, 2002). Latin American Perspectives 34: 123139.
Alston, L.J., Libecap, G.D. & Mueller, B. (1999) Titles, Conflict, and Land Use: the Development of Property Rights and Land Reform on the Brazilian Amazon Frontier. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
Anderson, A.B. (1990) Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rainforest. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
Araujo, C., Bonjean, C.A., Combes, J.L., Motel, P.C. & Reis, E.J. (2009) Property rights and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecological Economics 68: 24612468.
Arcand, J.L., Guillaumont, P. & Jeanneney, S.G. (2008) Deforestation and the real exchange rate. Journal of Development Economics 86: 242262.
Asner, G.P. & Alencar, A. (2010) Drought impacts on the Amazon forest: the remote sensing perspective. New Phytologist 187: 569578.
Baiocchi, G. (2003) Radicals in Power: the Workers’ Party (PT) and Experiments in Urban Democracy in Brazil. London, UK and New York, NY, USA: ZED Books.
Baker, A. (2009) The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Baker, D. (2003) The environmental Kuznets curve. Journal of Economic Perspectives 17: 226227.
Baker, I.T., Prihodko, L., Denning, A.S., Goulden, M., Miller, S. & da Rocha, H.R. (2008) Seasonal drought stress in the Amazon: reconciling models and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 113: G00B01, doi:10.1029/2007JG000644.
Balch, J.K., Nepstad, D.C., Brando, P.M., Curran, L.M., Portela, O., de Carvalho, O. & Lefebvre, P. (2008) Negative fire feedback in a transitional forest of southeastern Amazonia. Global Change Biology 14: 22762287.
Balée, W.L. & Erickson, C.L. (2006) Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
Barlow, J., Peres, C.A., Henriques, L.M.P., Stouffer, P.C. & Wunderle, J.M. (2006) The responses of understory birds to forest fragmentation, logging and wildfires: an Amazonian synthesis. Biological Conservation 128: 182192.
Bebbington, A. (2004) NGOs and uneven development: geographies of development intervention. Progress in Human Geography 28: 725745.
Bhattarai, M. & Hammig, M. (2004) Governance, economic policy, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve for natural tropical forests. Environment and Development Economics 9: 367382.
Borner, J. & Wunder, S. (2007) Divergent Opportunity Costs of REDD on Private Lands in the Brazilian Amazon. CIFOR. Belém, Brazil: CIFOR.
Borner, J., Wunder, S., Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S., Tito, M.R., Pereira, L. & Nascimento, N. (2010) Direct conservation payments in the Brazilian Amazon: scope and equity implications. Ecological Economics 69: 12721282.
Brannstrom, C. (2009) South America's neoliberal agricultural frontiers: places of environmental sacrifice or conservation opportunity? Ambio 38: 141149.
Brannstrom, C., Jepson, W., Filippi, A.M., Redo, A.M., Xu, Z.W. & Ganesh, S. (2008) Land change in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), 1986–2002: comparative analysis and implications for land-use policy. Land Use Policy 25: 579595.
Bray, D.B., Ellis, E.A., Armijo-Canto, N. & Beck, C.T. (2004) The institutional drivers of sustainable landscapes: a case study of the ‘Mayan Zone’ in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Land Use Policy 21: 333346.
Brondizio, E.S. (2008) The Amazon Caboclo and the Açai Palm: Forest Farmers in the Global Market. Bronx, New York, NY, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.
Brondizio, E.S. & Moran, E.F. (2008) Human dimensions of climate change: the vulnerability of small farmers in the Amazon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363: 18031809.
Browder, J.O. & Godfrey, B.J. (1997) Rainforest Cities: Urbanization, Development, and Globalization of the Brazilian Amazon. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
Browder, J.O., Pedlowski, M.A., Walker, R., Wynne, R.H.,. Summers, P.M., Abad, A., Becerra-Cordoba, M.N. & Mil-Homens, J. (2008) Revisiting theories of frontier expansion in the Brazilian Amazon: a survey of the colonist farming population in Rondonia's post-frontier, 1992–2002. World Development 36: 14691492.
Brown, K. & Rosendo, S. (2000) Environmentalists, rubber tappers and empowerment: the politics and economics of extractive reserves. Development and Change 31: 201227.
Bunker, S. (1985) Underdeveloping the Amazon. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
Campos, M.T. & Nepstad, D.C. (2006) Smallholders, the Amazon's new conservationists. Conservation Biology 20: 15531556.
Cardenas, E. (2009) Brazilian trade dominated by four markets. World Trade Atlas [www document]. URL
Caviglia-Harris, J.L., Chambers, D. & Kahn, J.R. (2009) Taking the ‘U’ out of Kuznets. A comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation. Ecological Economics 68: 11491159.
Cochrane, M.A. & Laurance, W.F. (2008) Synergisms among fire, land use, and climate change in the Amazon. Ambio 37: 522527.
Cole, M.A. (2003) Development, trade, and the environment: how robust is the Environmental Kuznets Curve? Environment and Development Economics 8: 557580.
CPT (2010) Conflitos no Campo 2010. Brasilia, Brazil: CPT.
Dandy, N. (2005) Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia: local resource management and the global political economy. Environmental Politics 14: 434436.
de Araujo, M.S.M., Silva, C. & de Campos, C.P. (2009) Land use change sector contribution to the carbon historical emissions and the sustainability: case study of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13: 696702.
Dean, M. (2010) Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. Los Angeles, CA, USA and London, UK: SAGE.
Domínguez, J.I. & Shifter, M. (2008) Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dowie, M. (2009) Conservation Refugees: the Hundred Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native People. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Erickson, C.L. (2006) Historical ecology of complex landscapes of the Bolivian Amazon. In: Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology, ed. Balée, W. & Erickson, C., pp. 235278. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press.
Fearnside, P.M. (2001) Land-tenure issues as factors in environmental destruction in Brazilian Amazonia: the case of Southern Pará. World Development 29: 13611372.
Fearnside, P.M. (2007) Brazil's Cuiaba-Santarem (BR-163) highway: the environmental cost of paving a soybean corridor through the Amazon. Environmental Management 39: 601614.
Fearnside, P.M. (2008) The roles and movements of actors in the deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia. Ecology and Society 13: 23 [www document]. URL
Fearnside, P.M., Righi, C.A., Graca, P., Keizer, E.W.H., Cerri, C.C., Nogueira, E.M. & Barbosa, R.I. (2009) Biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change in Brazil's Amazonian ‘arc of deforestation’: the states of Mato Grosso and Rondonia. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 19681978.
Fleishman, E., Ray, C., Sjogren-Gulve, P., Boggs, C.L. & Murphy, D.D. (2002) Assessing the roles of patch quality, area, and isolation in predicting metapopulation dynamics. Conservation Biology 16: 706716.
Foresta, R.A. (1991) Amazon Conservation in the Age of Development: the Limits of Providence. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida Press.
Fortes, A. (2009) In search of a post-Neoliberal paradigm: the Brazilian left and Lula's government. International Labor and Working-Class History 75: 109125.
Foucault, M., Burchell, G., Gordon, C. & Miller, P. (1991) The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
Futemma, C. & Brondizio, E.S. (2003) Land reform and land-use changes in the lower Amazon: implications for agricultural intensification. Human Ecology 31: 369402.
Galbraith, D., Levy, P.E., Sitch, S.,. Huntingford, C., Cox, P., Williams, M. & Meir, P. (2010) Multiple mechanisms of Amazonian forest biomass losses in three dynamic global vegetation models under climate change. New Phytologist 187: 647665.
Glaser, B. & Woods, W.I. (2004) Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Goeschl, T. & Igliori, D.C. (2006) Property rights for biodiversity conservation and development: extractive reserves in the Brazilian Amazon. Development and Change 37: 427451.
Governo do Brasil (2007) Comité Interministerial sobre Mundança de Clima. Brasilia, Brazil: Governo do Brasil.
Governo do Brasil (2008) Fontes de Recursos para Gestão Ambiental Publica. Brasilia, Brazil: Governo do Brasil.
Grainger, A. (2008) Difficulties in tracking the long term global trend in tropical forest area. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 818823.
Greenpeace (2009) Carbon Scam: Noel Kempff Climate Action Project and the Push for Sub-national Forest Offsets. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Greenpeace International.
Guha, R. & Martínez Alier, J. (1998) Varieties of Environmentalism: Essays North and South. Delhi, India and New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Hall, A.L. (1997) Sustaining Amazonia: Grassroots Action for Productive Conservation. Manchester, UK and New York, NY, USA: Manchester University Press.
Hall, A.L. (2000) Amazonia at the Crossroads: the Challenge of Sustainable Development. London, UK: Institute of Latin American Studies.
Hall, A.L. (2008) Better RED than dead: paying the people for environmental services in Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363: 19251932.
Hanski, I. (2009) Theories of island biogeography and metapopulation dynamics. In: The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited, ed. Losos, J. & Ricklefs, R., pp. 186213. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press.
Hayes, T.M. (2006) Parks, people, and forest protection: institutional assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas. World Development 34: 20642075.
Hecht, S.B. (1985) Environment, development and politics: capital accumulation and the livestock sector in Eastern Amazonia. World Development 13: 663684.
Hecht, S.B. (1993) The logic of livestock and deforestation in Amazonia. Bioscience 43: 687695.
Hecht, S.B. (2004) Invisible forests: the political ecology of forest resurgence in El Salvador. In: Liberation Ecologies, ed. Watts, M. & Peet, R., pp. 64104. London, UK: Routledge.
Hecht, S.B. (2005) Soybeans, development and conservation on the Amazon frontier. Development and Change 36: 375404.
Hecht, S.B. (2007) Factories, forests, fields and family: gender and neoliberalism in extractive reserves. Journal of Agrarian Change 7: 316347.
Hecht, S.B. (2009) Kayapó savanna management: fire, soils, and forest islands in a threatened biome. In: Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision, ed. Woods, W.I., Teixeira, W.G., Lehmann, J., Steiner, C., WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. & Rebellato, L., pp. 143162. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
Hecht, S.B. (2011) New Amazonian geographies: insurgent citizenship, ‘Amazon nation’ and the politics of Amazon environmentalisms. Journal of Cultural Geographies 18: 203223.
Hecht, S.B. & Cockburn, A. (1989) The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers, and Defenders of the Amazon. New York, NY, USA: Verso.
Hecht, S.B. & Mann, C.C. (2008) How Brazil outfarmed the American farmer. Fortune 157: 92105.
Heckenberger, M. & Neves, E.G. (2009) Amazonian Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 38: 251266.
Heckenberger, M.J., Russell, J.C., Fausto, C., Toney, J.R., Schmidt, M.J., Pereira, E., Franchetto, B. & Kuikuro, A. (2008) Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon. Science 321: 12141217.
Hirsch, A.I., Little, W.S., Houghton, R.A., Scott, N.A. & White, J.D. (2004) The net carbon flux due to deforestation and forest regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon: analysis using a process-based model. Global Change Biology 10: 908924.
Hochstetler, K. & Keck, M. (2007) Greening Brazil: Environmental Activism in State and Society. Durham, USA: Duke University Press.
Hoffmann, W.A., Schroeder, W. & Jackson, R.B. (2003) Regional feedbacks among fire, climate, and tropical deforestation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108: 4721, doi:10.1029/2003JD003494.
Holston, J. (2008) Insurgent Citizenship: Disjunctions of Democracy and Modernity in Brazil. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
IBGE (2007) Produção da Extração Vegetal e da Silvicultura. Departamento Agropecuário, 1950–2006. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.
Imazon (2008) Quem é o Dono do Amazônia? Belem, Brazil: Imazon.
INPE (2008) Projeto Desmatamento 1997–2007. INPE, São José dos Campos, Brazil [www document]. URL
INPE (2011) Taxas Annuais de Desmatemento. Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil: INPE.
Irwin, R. (2007) The neoliberal state, environmental pragmatism and its discontents. Environmental Politics 16: 643658.
Jepson, W. (2006) Producing a modern agricultural frontier: firms and cooperatives in Eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Economic Geography 82: 289316.
Joppa, L.N., Loarie, S.R. & Pimm, S.L. (2008) On the protection of ‘protected areas’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 66736678.
Kant, S. (2009) Recent global trends in forest tenures. Forestry Chronicle 85: 849858.
Killeen, T.J. (2007) A Perfect Storm in the Amazon Wilderness: Development and Conservation in the Context of the Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA). Arlington, USA: Conservation International.
Killeen, T.J., Douglas, M., Consiglio, T., Jorgensen, P.M. & Mejia, J. (2007) Dry spots and wet spots in the Andean hotspot. Journal of Biogeography 34: 13571373.
Klink, C.A. & Machado, R.B. (2005) Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conservation Biology 19: 707713.
Lara, R.J. & Cohen, M.C.L. (2009) Palaeolimnological studies and ancient maps confirm secular climate fluctuations in Amazonia. Climatic Change 94: 399408.
Laurance, W.F. (2002) Hyperdynamism in fragmented habitats. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 595602.
Laurance, W.F. (2004) Forest-climate interactions in fragmented tropical landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 359: 345352.
Laurance, W.F. (2007) Have we overstated the tropical biodiversity crisis? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 6570.
Laurance, W.F. (2008) Theory meets reality: how habitat fragmentation research has transcended island biogeographic theory. Biological Conservation 141: 17311744.
Laurance, W.F., Albernaz, A.K.M., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P.M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E.M. & Da Costa, C. (2002 a) Predictors of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Biogeography 29: 737748.
Laurance, W.F., Lovejoy, T.E., Vasconcelos, H.L., Bruna, E.M., Didham, R.K., Stouffer, P.C., Gascon, C., Bierregaard, R.O., Laurance, S.G. & Sampaio, E. (2002 b) Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: a 22-year investigation. Conservation Biology 16: 605618.
Lees, A.C. & Peres, C.A. (2006) Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biological Conservation 133: 198211.
Lehmann, J., Kern, D.C., Glaser, B. & Woods, W.I. (2003) Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties and Management. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lewis, S.L., Brando, P.M., Phillips, O.L., van der Heijden, G.M.F. & Nepstad, D. (2011) The 2010 Amazon drought. Science 331: 554554.
Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., Sitch, S., Mitchard, E.T.A. & Laurance, W.F. (2009) Changing ecology of tropical forests: evidence and drivers. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 40: 529549.
Ludewigs, T., D'Antona, A.D., Brondizio, E.S. & Hetrick, S. (2009) Agrarian structure and land-cover change along the lifespan of three colonization areas in the Brazilian Amazon. World Development. 37: 13481359.
Malhi, Y., Aragao, L., Galbraith, D., Huntingford, C., Fisher, R., Zelazowski, P., Sitch, S., McSweeney, C. & Meir, P. (2009) Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 2061020615.
Marengo, J.A., Nobre, C.A., Tomasella, J., Cardoso, M.F. & Oyama, M.D. (2008) Hydro-climatic and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363: 17731778.
Meggers, B.J. (1994) Archaeological evidence for the impact of mega-Niño events on Amazonia during the past two millennia. Climatic Change 28: 321338.
Mertens, B., Poccard-Chapuis, R., Piketty, M.G., Lacques, A.E. & Venturieri, A. (2002) Crossing spatial analyses and livestock economics to understand deforestation processes in the Brazilian Amazon: the case of Sao Felix do Xingu in South Pará. Agricultural Economics 27: 269294.
Mills, J.H. & Waite, T.A (2009) Economic prosperity, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental Kuznets curve. Ecological Economics 68: 20872095.
Mittermeier, R.A., Myers, N., Thomsen, J.B., da Fonseca, A.B. & Olivieri, S. (1998) Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology 12: 516520.
Moran, E.F., Adams, R., Bakoyema, B. & Boucek, B. (2006) Human strategies for coping with El Niño related drought in Amazonia. Climatic Change 77: 343361.
Morton, D.C., Defries, R.S., Randerson, J.T., Giglio, L., Schroeder, W. &. van der Werf, G.R. (2008) Agricultural intensification increases deforestation fire activity in Amazonia. Global Change Biology 14: 22622275.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853858.
Nepstad, D., Carvalho, G., Barros, A.C., Alencar, A., Capobianco, J.P., Bishop, J., Moutinho, P., Lefebvre, P., Silva, U.L. & Prins, E. (2001) Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests. Forest Ecology and Management 154: 395407.
Nepstad, D., Schwartzman, S., Bamberger, B., Santilli, M., Ray, D., Schlesinger, P., Lefebvre, P., Alencar, A., Prinz, E., Fiske, G. & Rolla, A. (2006 a) Inhibition of Amazon deforestation and fire by parks and indigenous lands. Conservation Biology 20: 6573.
Nepstad, D., Soares, B.S., Merry, F., Lima, A., Moutinho, P., Carter, J., Bowman, M., Cattaneo, A., Rodrigues, H., Schwartzman, S., McGrath, D.G., Stickler, C.M., Lubowski, R., Piris-Cabezas, P., Rivero, S., Alencar, A., Almeida, O. & Stella, O. (2009) The end of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 326: 13501351.
Nepstad, D.C., Stickler, C.M. & Almeida, O.T. (2006 b) Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation. Conservation Biology 20: 15951603.
Neumann, R.P. (1998) Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Okereke, C. & Dooley, K. (2010) Principles of justice in proposals and policy approaches to avoided deforestation: towards a post-Kyoto climate agreement. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 20: 8295.
Pacheco, P. (2009 a) Agrarian reform in the Brazilian Amazon: its implications for land distribution and deforestation. World Development 37: 13371347.
Pacheco, P. (2009 b) Smallholder livelihoods, wealth and deforestation in the eastern Amazon. Human Ecology 37: 2741.
Padoch, C., Pinedo-Vasquez, M. & Henderson, A. (1999) Varzea: Diversity Development and Conservation. New York, NY, USA: Columbia Press.
Parssinen, M., Schaan, D., Ranzi, A. & Piccolo, J. (2009) Pre-Columbian earthworks in the Upper Purus: a complex society in Western Amazonia. Antiquity 83: 10841095.
Pennington, T., Lewis, G.P. &. Ratter, J.A. (2006) Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests: Plant Diversity, Biogeography, and Conservation. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC/Taylor & Francis.
Peres, C.A. (2005) Why we need megareserves in Amazonia. Conservation Biology 19: 728733.
Peres, C.A. & Zimmerman, B. (2001) Perils in parks or parks in peril? Reconciling conservation in Amazonian reserves with and without use. Conservation Biology 15: 793797.
Perfecto, I., Vandermeer, J. & Wright, A. (2009) Natures Matrix: Linking Agriculture, Conservation and Food Sovereignty. London, UK: Earthscan.
Perreault, T. (2003) Changing places: transnational networks, ethnic politics, and community development in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Political Geography 22: 6188.
Perz, S.G. (2007) Grand theory and context-specificity in the study of forest dynamics: forest transition theory and other directions. Professional Geographer 59: 105114.
Pinedo-Vasquez, M., Hecht, S.B. & Padoch, C. (2011) Traditional forest knowledge: sustaining communities, ecosystems and biocultural diversity in Amazonia. In: Traditional Forest Knowledge Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity, ed. Parrotta, J.A. & Trosper, R. (in press). New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Pinedo-Vasquez, M., Zarin, D.J., Coffey, K., Padoch, C. & Rabelo, F. (2001) Post-boom logging in Amazonia. Human Ecology 29: 219239.
Posey, D.A. & Balée, W.L. (1989) Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. Bronx, NY, USA: New York Botanical Garden.
Potter, C., Klooster, S. & Genovese, V. (2009) Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Biogeosciences 6: 23692381.
Ribeiro, M.B.N. & Verissimo, A. (2007) Patterns and causes of deforestation in protected areas of Rondonia-Brazil. Natureza & Conservação 5: 103113.
Rival, L. (2006) Amazonian historical ecologies. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12: S79S94.
Rival, L.M. (2002) Trekking Through History: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. New York: Columbia University Press.
Saatchi, S.S., Houghton, R.A., Alvala, R., Soares, J.V. & Yu, Y. (2007) Distribution of aboveground live biomass in the Amazon basin. Global Change Biology 13: 816837.
Schmink, M. & Wood, C. (1987) The ‘political ecology’ of Amazonia. In: Lands at Risk in the Third World, ed. Little, P. & Horowitz, M.. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Schwartzman, S., Moreira, A. & Nepstad, D. (2000 a) Rethinking tropical forest conservation: perils in parks. Conservation Biology 14: 13511357.
Schwartzman, S., Nepstad, D. & Moreira, A. (2000 b) Arguing tropical forest conservation: people versus parks. Conservation Biology 14: 13701374.
Sears, R.R., Padoch, C. & Pinedo-Vasquez, M. (2007) Amazon forestry tranformed: integrating knowledge for smallholder timber management in eastern Brazil. Human Ecology 35: 697707.
Siegert, F., Ruecker, G., Hinrichs, A. & Hoffmann, A.A. (2001) Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño. Nature 414: 437440.
Simmons, C.S. (2004) The political economy of land conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94: 183206.
Simmons, C.S., Walker, R.T., Arima, E.Y., Aldrich, S.P. & Caldas, M.M. (2007) The Amazon land war in the south of Pará. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97: 567592.
Singh, R.K. & Padung, I. (2010) Climate change, REDD and biocultural diversity: consultations and grassroots initiative with indigenous people of Arunachal Pradesh. Current Science 99: 421422.
Soares, B., Alencar, A., Nepstad, D., Cerqueira, G., Diaz, M.D.V., Rivero, S., Solorzano, L. & Voll, C. (2004) Simulating the response of land-cover changes to road paving and governance along a major Amazon highway: the Santarem-Cuiaba corridor. Global Change Biology 10: 745764.
Soares, B.., Nepstad, D.C., Curran, L.M., Cerqueira, G.C., Garcia, R.A., Ramos, E., Voll, C.A., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P. & Schlesinger, P. (2006) Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440: 520523.
Stickler, C.M., Nepstad, D.C., Coe, M.T., McGrath, D.G., Rodrigues, H.O., Walker, W.S., Soares, B.S. & Davidson, E.A. (2009) The potential ecological costs and cobenefits of REDD: a critical review and case study from the Amazon region. Global Change Biology 15: 28032824.
Tollefson, J. (2009) Climate: counting carbon in the Amazon. Nature 461: 10481052.
Treccani, G. (2007) Territórios Quilombolas. Belém, Brasil: INTERPA.
Vera-Diaz, M.D., Kaufmann, R.K., Nepstad, D.C. & Schlesinger, P. (2008) An interdisciplinary model of soybean yield in the Amazon Basin: the climatic, edaphic, and economic determinants. Ecological Economics 65: 420431.
Villar, J.C.E., Ronchail, J., Guyot, J.L., Cochonneau, G., Naziano, F., Lavado, W., De Oliveira, E., Pombosa, R. & Vauchel, P. (2009) Spatio-temporal rainfall variability in the Amazon basin countries (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador). International Journal of Climatology 29: 15741594.
Walker, R., Browder, J., Arima, E., Simmons, C., Pereira, R., Caldas, M., Shirota, R. & de Zen, S. (2009) Ranching and the new global range: Amazonia in the 21st century. Geoforum 40: 732745.
Wolford, W. (2005) Agrarian moral economies and neoliberalism in Brazil: competing worldviews and the state in the struggle for land. Environment and Planning A, 37, 241261.
Woods, W.I., Teixeira, W.G., Lehmann, J., Steiner, C., WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. & Rebellato, L. (2009) Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
Wunder, S. (2008) Payments for environmental services and the poor: concepts and preliminary evidence. Environment and Development Economics 13: 279297.
Zoomers, E.B. & van denHaar, G. (2000) Current Land Policy in Latin America: Regulating Land Tenure under Neo-liberalism. Frankfurt, Germany: KIT Publishers/Iberoamericana/Vervuert Verlag.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed