Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Island conservation issues in international conventions and agreements

  • ARTHUR LYON DAHL (a1)
Summary

In this review, I look at governance beyond the national level and consider how well island conservation issues are addressed in international conventions and agreements, both global and regional. I focus primarily on small island developing states (SIDS) and look at conventions to which they are parties, in which their needs are specifically mentioned and which have actions directly targeted to SIDS. I also discuss the evolution of international soft law in agreements and action plans to respond to island issues, the role of the secretariats that have been set up by international conventions to support SIDS conservation action and the protection and recognition provided to island protected areas listed under international conventions. The review shows that international governance has increasingly responded to island needs for biodiversity conservation, often with the active participation of SIDS themselves. However, the multiplication of international agreements and their requirements has often surpassed the capacity of island countries to implement them, requiring further adaptations in order to address this problem. The regional organizations of SIDS help to provide an interface with global conventions and international organizations. There remain a number of gaps and challenges that still need to be addressed in order to halt the erosion and hopefully encourage the restoration of island biodiversity.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Dr Arthur Lyon Dahl email: dahla@bluewin.ch
References
Hide All
Aqorau, T. (2014) The evolution of international fisheries law in the island nations of the Pacific: the quest for control. In: Peaceful Order in the World's Oceans, eds. Lodge, M. & Nordquist, M.H., pp. 338357. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Brill/Nijhoff, 2014.
Bell, L. (2012) SPREP: Pacific Islands Region and CITES. Environmental Policy and Law 42 (4/5): 282284.
CBD (2014) Island Biodiversity – Island Bright Spots in Conservation and Sustainability. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity [www document]. URL https://www.cbd.int/idb/image/2014/idb-2014-booklet.pdf
Chang, W.B.C. (2013) Indigenous values and the Law of the Sea. In: Governing Ocean Resources: New Challenges and Emerging Regimes, ed. Van Dyke, J.M., Chapter 20, pp. 427445. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.
Chasek, P.S. (2010) Confronting environmental treaty implementation challenges in the Pacific Islands. Pacific Islands Policy 6. Honolulu: East-West Center [www document]. URL http://www.eastwestcenter.org/publications/confronting-environmental-treaty-implementation-challenges-pacific-islands
Cogliati-Bantz, V.P. (2015) Archipelagic states and the new Law of the Sea. In: Law of the sea: From Grotius to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, ed. del Castillo, L., Chapter 18, pp. 299317. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Brill/Nijhoff.
Dahl, A.L. (1980) Regional Ecosystems Survey of the South Pacific Area. Tech. Paper 179. Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
Dahl, A.L. & Baumgart, I. (1982) The state of the environment in the South Pacific. In: Report of the Conference on the Human Environment in the South Pacific, Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 8–11 March 1982, pp. 4771. Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
Dahl, A.L. (1984a) Oceania's most pressing environmental concerns. Ambio 13 (5–6): 296301.
Dahl, A.L. (1984b) Biogeographical aspects of isolation in the Pacific. Ambio 13 (5–6): 302305.
Dahl, A.L. (1984c) Future directions for the Oceanian Realm. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, October, 1982, eds. McNeely, J.A. & Miller, K.R., pp. 359362. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Dahl, A.L. (1985) Adequacy of coverage of protected areas in Oceania. In: Report of the Third South Pacific National Parks and Reserves Conference, Apia, Western Samoa, Vol. 2, pp. 28. Nouméa, New Caledonia: SPREP, South Pacific Commission.
Dahl, A.L. (1986) Review of the Protected Areas System in Oceania (including Oceania island list). Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
Dahl, A.L. (1989) Traditional environmental knowledge and resource management in New Caledonia. In: Traditional Ecological Knowledge: a Collection of Essays, ed. Gland, R.E. Johannes., Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
Dahl, A.L. (1991) IUCN/UNEP Island Directory. UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies, No. 35, 573 p. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [www document]. URL http://islands.unep.ch/isldir.htm
Fuse, T., & Iwama, T. (1981) Regional cooperation for the protection of the environment in the East Asian Seas and the Pacific. In: Environmental Law and Policy in the Pacific Basin Area, eds. Kato, I., Kumamoto, N. & Matthews, W.H., pp. 183199. Tokyo, Japan: University of Tokyo Press.
Giraud-Kinley, C. (1999) The effectiveness of international law: sustainable development in the South Pacific region. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12 (1): 125176.
Govan, H, Tawake, A, Tabunakawai, K, Jenkins, A, et al. (2009) Status and Potential of Locally-managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Wide-spread Implementation of LMMAs. Suva, Fiji: SPREP/WWF/WorldFish-Reefbase/CRISP.
Guth, H.K. (2013) Protecting and perpetuating Papahanaumokuakea: involvement of native Hawaiians in governance of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. In: Governing Ocean Resources: New Challenges and Emerging Regimes, ed. Van Dyke, J.M., Chapter 19, pp. 407425. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.
Hanich, Q. (2014) Distributing a conservation burden across multiple jurisdictions: a case study of the Western and Central Pacific tuna fisheries. In: The Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction, eds. Schofield, C.H., Yi, S. & Kwon, M.S., Chapter 18, pp. 407430. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.
Hanich, Q. & Tsamenyi, M. (2014) Progress in the implementation of conservation and management measures for Bigeye and Yellowfin tunas in the Western and Central Pacific: sharing the conservation burden and benefit. In: Peaceful Order in the World's Oceans, eds. Lodge, M. & Nordquist, M.H., pp. 358380. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Brill/Nijhoff.
Herr, R. (2002) Environmental protection in the South Pacific: the effectiveness of SPREP and its conventions. In: Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 2002/2003, eds. Sotkke, O.S. & Thommessen, Ø.B., pp. 4149. London, UK: Earthscan.
IAEG-SDGs (2016) Report of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators, 19 February 2016 – United Nations E/CN.3/2016/2/Rev.1 [www document]. URL http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/47th-session/documents/2016-2-SDGs-Rev1-E.pdf
Jacovides, A. (2014) Islands. In: Peaceful Order in the World's Oceans, eds. Lodge, M. & Nordquist, M.H., pp. 6890. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Brill/Nijhoff.
Johannes, R.E. (ed.) (1981) Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Johannes, R.E. (2002) The renaissance of community-based marine resource management in Oceania. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 317340.
Jupiter, S., Mangubhai, S. & Kingsford, R.T. (2014) Conservation of biodiversity in the Pacific Islands of Oceania: challenges and opportunities. Pacific Conservation Biology 20 (2): 206220.
Kim, B. & Lee, S. (2013) Existing legal frameworks relevant to marine genetic resources. In: Governing Ocean Resources: New Challenges and Emerging Regimes, ed. Van Dyke, J.M., Chapter 24, pp. 503519. Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
Laikre, L (2010) Genetic diversity is overlooked in international conservation policy implementation. Conservation Genetics 11: 349354.
Lodge, M. & Nordquist, M.H. (eds), (2014) Peaceful order in the world's oceans: essays in honor of Satya N Nandan. Leiden, The Netherlands/Boston, MA: Brill/Nijhoff.
Mougeot, J., Piest, U. & Dodds, S.E.H. (2003) Pacific Island countries regional study on inter-linkages. Work in Progress 17 (1): 1011.
Mougeot, J. (2003) SPREP's perspectives on inter-linkages among MEAs in the South Pacific. Work in Progress 17 (1): 1920.
Nurse, L. & Moore, R. (2005) Adaptation to global climate change: an urgent requirement for small island developing states. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 14: 100107.
Rayfuse, R. (2011) International law and disappearing states: maritime zones and the criteria for statehood. Environmental Policy and Law 41 (6): 281287.
Rosabal, P. (2004) Protected areas: benefits to islanders. In: Island Biodiversity – Sustaining Life in Vulnerable Ecosystems, eds. Deda, P., Marín, C. & Mulongoy, K.J., pp. 21–28. INSULA, the International Journal on Island Affairs, February/September 2004 [www document]. URL https://www.cbd.int/island/insula.shtml
SACEP (2008) Regional Strategy for Coral Reef Management in South Asia. Technical Report, South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme [www document]. URL http://www.sacep.org/pdf/Reports-Technical/2008.12-Regional-Strategy-for-Coral-Reef-Management-in-South-Asia.pdf
SPC (1973) Regional Symposium on Conservation of Nature – Reefs and Lagoons. Proceedings and Papers. Nouméa, New Caledonia, 5–14 August 1971. Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
SPREP (2000) Convention on Biological Diversity: An Information Package for Pacific Island Countries. Apia, Samoa: SPREP [www document]. URL http://www.sprep.org/att/publication/000289_CBD_publication.pdf
SPREP (2014) Action Strategy: Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014–2020 [www document]. URL https://www.sprep.org/attachments/pacificnatureconference/Draft_Regional_Framework_Action_Strategy_2014_-_2020_Final_EDIT.pdf
SPREP (2016) A Guide to the Linkages between the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, NBSAPs and the Objectives of the Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014–2020. Apia, Samoa: SPREP.
Taylor, P., Stroud, L. & Peteru, C. (2013) Multilateral Environmental Agreement Negotiator's Handbook: Pacific Region 2013. Apia, Samoa: SPREP and New Zealand Centre for Environmental Law.
UN (1992) Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development. United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3–14 June 1992. New York: United Nations [www document]. URL https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf
UN (2015) Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A/70/L.1. New York, NY: United Nations.
UNEP (1999a) Caribbean Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (1999b) Pacific Islands Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (1999c) Western Indian Ocean Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (2005a) Atlantic and Indian Ocean Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (2005b) Caribbean Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (2005c) Pacific Environment Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
UNEP (2008) Overview of Environmental Assessment Landscape at National Level: State of State-of-the-environment Reporting: Note by the Executive Director. UNEP/GC.25/INF/12/Add.1 [www document]. URL http://new.unep.org/gc/gcss-x/download.asp?ID=1016
UNEP (2014a) Emerging Issues for Small Island Developing States. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [www document]. URL http://apps.unep.org/publications/index.php?option=com_pmtdata&task=download&file=-EmergingIssuesforSmallIslandDevelopingStates-2014Emergingissues.pdf
Wright, A., Stacey, N. & Holland, P. (2006) The cooperative framework for ocean and coastal management in the Pacific Islands: effectiveness, constraints and future direction. Ocean and Coastal Management 49 (9–10): 739763.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed