Skip to main content
×
Home

Island extinctions: processes, patterns, and potential for ecosystem restoration

  • JAMIE R. WOOD (a1), JOSEP A. ALCOVER (a2), TIM M. BLACKBURN (a3) (a4), PERE BOVER (a2), RICHARD P. DUNCAN (a5), JULIAN P. HUME (a6), JULIEN LOUYS (a7), HANNEKE J.M. MEIJER (a8), JUAN C. RANDO (a9) and JANET M. WILMSHURST (a1) (a10)...
Summary
SUMMARY

Extinctions have altered island ecosystems throughout the late Quaternary. Here, we review the main historic drivers of extinctions on islands, patterns in extinction chronologies between islands, and the potential for restoring ecosystems through reintroducing extirpated species. While some extinctions have been caused by climatic and environmental change, most have been caused by anthropogenic impacts. We propose a general model to describe patterns in these anthropogenic island extinctions. Hunting, habitat loss and the introduction of invasive predators accompanied prehistoric settlement and caused declines of endemic island species. Later settlement by European colonists brought further land development, a different suite of predators and new drivers, leading to more extinctions. Extinctions alter ecological networks, causing ripple effects for islands through the loss of ecosystem processes, functions and interactions between species. Reintroduction of extirpated species can help restore ecosystem function and processes, and can be guided by palaeoecology. However, reintroduction projects must also consider the cultural, social and economic needs of humans now inhabiting the islands and ensure resilience against future environmental and climate change.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Dr Jamie R. Wood email: woodj@landcareresearch.co.nz
References
Hide All
Anderson A. (2009) The rat and the octopus: initial human colonization and the prehistoric introduction of domestic animals to remote Oceania. Biological Invasions 11: 15031519.
Athens J.S. (2009) Rattus exulans and the catastrophic disappearance of Hawai'i’s native lowland forest. Biological Invasions 11: 14891501.
Atkinson R. & Sevathian J.C. (2007) A Guide to the Plants of Mauritius. Port Louis, Mauritius: Mauritius Stationery Manufacturers Ltd.
Barnosky A.D., Koch P.L., Feranec R.S., Wing S.L. & Shabel A.B. (2004) Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306: 7075.
Barnosky A.D., Hadly E.A., Gonzalez P., Head J., Polly P.D., Lawing A.M. et al. (2017) Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Science 355: eaah4787.
Bell E.A., Bell B.D. & Merton D.V. (2016) The legacy of Big South Cape: rat irruption to rat eradication. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 40: 212218.
Benning T.L., LaPointe D., Atkinson C.T. & Vitousek P.M. (2002) Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 1424614249.
Bird M. I., Taylor D. & Hunt C. (2005) Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the last glacial period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland? Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 22282242.
Blackburn T.M., Cassey P., Duncan R.P., Evans K.L. & Gaston K.J. (2004) Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Science 305: 19551958.
Bonfiglio L., Mangano G., Marra A.C., Masini F., Pavia M. & Petruso D. (2002) Pleistocene Calabrian and Sicilian paleobioprovinces. Geobios, Mémoire Spécial 24: 2939.
Bover P. & Alcover J.A. (2003) Understanding late Quaternary extinctions: the case of Myotragus balearicus (Bate, 1909). Journal of Biogeography 30: 771781.
Bover P., Valenzuela A., Torres E., Cooper A., Pons J. & Alcover J.A. (2016) Closing the gap: new data on the last documented Myotragus and the first human evidence on Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). The Holocene 26: 18871891.
Bowman D.M.J.S., Balch J., Artaxo P., Bond W.J., Cochrane M.A., D'Antonia C.M. et al. (2011) The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth. Journal of Biogeography 38: 22232236.
Brodie J.F., Aslan C.E., Rogers H.S., Redford K.H. & Maron J.L. (2014) Secondary extinctions of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 29: 664672.
Bullock D. & North S. (1984) Round Island in 1982. Oryx 18: 3641.
Burney D.A. & Burney L.P. (2016) Monitoring results from a decade of native plant translocations at Makauwahi Cave Reserve, Kaua'i. Plant Ecology 217: 139153.
Bush M.B., Restrepo A. & Collins A.F. (2014) Galápagos history, restoration, and a shifted baseline. Restoration Ecology 22: 296298.
Chapin M.H., Wood K.R., Perlman S.P. & Maunder M. (2004) A review of the conservation status of the endemic Pritchardia palms of Hawaii. Oryx 38: 273281.
Cheke A.S. (2013) Extinct birds of the Mascarenes and Seychelles – a review of the causes of extinction in the light of an important new publication on extinct birds. Phelsuma 21: 419.
Cheke A.S. & Bour R. (2014) Unequal struggle – how humans displaced the dominance of tortoises in island ecosystems. In: Western Indian Ocean Tortoises, ed. Gerlach J., pp. 31120. Manchester, UK: Siri Scientific Press.
Cheke A.S. & Hume J.P. (2008) Lost Land of the Dodo: The Ecological History of the Mascarene Islands. London, UK: A&C Black Publishers.
Clarke S.J., Miller G.H., Fogel M.L., Chivas A.R. & Murray-Wallace C.V. (2006) The amino acid and stable isotope biogeochemistry of elephant bird (Aepyornis) eggshells from southern Madagascar. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 23432356.
Coffey E.E.D., Froyd C.A. & Willis K.J. (2011) When is an invasive not an invasive? Macrofossil evidence of doubtful plant species in the Galápagos Islands. Ecology 92: 805812.
Connor S.E., van Leeuwen J.F.N., Rittenour T.M., van der Knaap W.O., Ammann B. & Björck S.B. (2012) The ecological impact of oceanic island colonization – a palaeoecological perspective from the Azores. Journal of Biogeography 39: 10071023.
Corlett R.T. (2007) The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica 39: 292303.
Davidson N.C. (2014) How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research 65: 934941.
de Lange P.J., Norton D.A., Heenan P.B., Courtney S.P., Molloy B.P.J., Ogle C.C. et al. (2004) Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 4576.
Dodd C.K. & Seigel R.A. (1991) Relocation, repatriation, and translocation of amphibians and reptiles: are they conservation strategies that work? Herpetologica 47: 336350.
Duffy J.E. (2003) Biodiversity loss, trophic skew and ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 6: 680687.
Duncan R.P. & Blackburn T.M. (2004) Extinction and endemism in the New Zealand avifauna. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 509517.
Duncan R.P., Blackburn T.M. & Worthy T.H. (2002) Prehistoric bird extinctions and human hunting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 269: 517521.
Duncan R.P., Boyer A.G. & Blackburn T.M. (2013) Magnitude and variation of prehistoric bird extinctions in the Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110: 64366441.
Dunlap T.R. (1997) Remaking the land: the acclimatization movement and Anglo ideas of nature. Journal of World History 8: 309319.
Dunn R.R., Harris N.C., Colwell R.K., Koh L.P. & Sodhi N.S. (2009) The sixth mass coextinction: are most endangered species parasites and mutualists? Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276: 30373045.
Ecroyd C.E. (1995) Dactylanthus taylorii Recovery Plan. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation.
Ewers R.M., Kliskey A.D., Walker S., Rutledge D., Harding J.S. & Didham R.K. (2006) Past and future trajectories of forest loss in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 133: 312325.
Fleming C.A. (1969) Rats and moa extinction. Notornis 16: 210211.
Flenley J.R., King A.S.M., Jackson J., Chew C., Teller J.T. & Prentice M.E. (1991) The late Quaternary vegetational and climatic history of Easter Island. Journal of Quaternary Science 6: 85115.
Gibbs J.P., Marquez C. & Sterling E.J. (2008) The role of endangered species reintroduction in ecosystem restoration: tortoise–cactus interactions on Española Island, Galapagos. Restoration Ecology 16: 8893.
Glover I. (1986) Archaeology in Eastern Timor, 1966–67. Terra Australis 11: 1241.
Goodfriend G.A., Cameron R.A.D. & Cook L.M. (1994) Fossil evidence of recent human impact on the land snail fauna of Madeira. Journal of Biogeography 21: 309320.
Griffiths C.J., Hansen D.M., Jones C.G., Zuēl N. & Harris S. (2011) Resurrecting extinct interactions with extant substitutes. Current Biology 21: 14
Griffiths C.J. (2014) Rewilding in the Western Indian Ocean. In: Western Indian Ocean Tortoises, ed. Gerlach J., pp. 325349. Manchester, UK: Siri Scientific Press.
Griffiths O.L. & Florens V.F.B. (2006) A Field Guide to the Non-marine Molluscs of the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and Réunion) and the Northern Dependencies of Mauritius. Port Louis, Mauritius: Bioculture Press.
Grove R.H. (1996) Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hansen D.M. (2010) On the use of taxon substitutes in rewilding projects on islands. In: Islands and evolution, eds. V. Pérez-Mellado & C. Ramon, pp. 111–146. Menorca, Spain: Institut Menorqí d'Estudis, Recerca.
Hansen D.M. & Galetti M. (2009) The forgotten megafauna. Science 324: 4243.
Hansen D.M., Donlan C.J., Griffiths C.J. & Campbell K.J. (2010) Ecological history and latent conservation potential: large and giant tortoises as a model or taxon substitions. Ecography 33: 272284.
Heaney L.R. (1991) A synopsis of climatic and vegetational change in Southeast Asia. Climatic Change 19: 5361.
Hearty P.J., Olson S.L., Kaufman D.S., Edwards R.L. & Cheng H. (2004) Stratigraphy and geochronology of pitfall accumulations in caves and fissures, Bermuda. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 11511171.
Hume J.P. (2013) A synopsis of the pre-human avifauna of the Mascarene Islands. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, eds. Göhlich U.B. & Kroh A., pp. 195237. Vienna, Austria: Naturhistorisches Museum.
Hume J.P. (2014a) Systematics, morphology, and ecological history of the Mascarene starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) with the description of a new genus and species from Mauritius. Zootaxa 3849: 175.
Hume J.P. (2014b) Fossil discoveries on Mauritius and Rodrigues. In: Western Indian Ocean Tortoises, ed. Gerlach J., J., pp. 203228. Manchester, UK: Siri Scientific Press.
Hunt T.L. (2007) Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 485502.
Hunt C.O. & Rabett R.J. (2014) Holocene landscape intervention and plant food production strategies in island and mainland Southeast Asia. Journal of Archaeological Science 51: 2233.
Hutton I., Parkes J.P. & Sinclair A.R.E. (2007) Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island. Animal Conservation 10: 2229.
Johnson C.N. (2009) Ecological consequences of late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 276: 25092519
Johnson T.H. & Stattersfield A.J. (1990) A global review of island endemic birds. IBIS 132: 167180.
Karels T.J., Dobson F.S., Trevino H.S. & Skibiel A.L. (2008) The biogeography of avian extinctions on oceanic islands. Journal of Biogeography 35: 11061111.
Keitt B., Campbell K., Saunders A., Clout M., Wang Y., Heinz R. et al. (2011) The Global Islands Invasive Vertebrate Eradication Database: a tool to improve and facilitate restoration of island ecosystems. In: Island Invasives: Eradication and Management, eds. Veitch C.R, Clout M.N. & Towns D.R., pp. 7477. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN.
King C.M. (1990) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lee W.G., Wood J.R. & Rogers G.M. (2010) The legacy of avian dominated plant-herbivore systems in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34: 2847.
Liebherr J.K. & Porch N. (2015) Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191213.
Loope L.L., Hughes R.F. & Meyer J.-Y. (2013) Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical Pacific Islands, with special reference to Hawaii. In: Plant Invasions in Protected Areas: Patterns, Problems and Challenges, ed. Foxcroft L.C., Pyšek P., Richardson D.M. & Genovesi P., pp. 313348. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Louys J. (2008) Quaternary extinctions in Southeast Asia. In: Mass Extinction, ed. Elewa A.M.T., pp. 159189. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Louys J. (2014) The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia. Quaternary Science Reviews 96: 8697.
Louys J. & Meijaard E. (2010) Palaeoecology of Southeast Asian megafauna‐bearing sites from the Pleistocene and a review of environmental changes in the region. Journal of Biogeography 37: 14321449.
Louys J., Curnoe D. & Tong H.W. (2007) Characteristics of Pleistocene megafauna extinctions in Southeast Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243: 152173.
Louys J., Corlett R.T., Price G.J., Hawkins S. & Piper P.J. (2014) Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Ecology and Evolution 4: 43804398.
Louys J., Price G.J. & O'Connor S. (2016) Direct dating of Pleistocene stegodon from Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara. PeerJ 4: e1788.
Lyver P.O'B., Wilmshurst J.M., Wood J.R., Jones C.J., Fromont M., Bellingham P.J. et al. (2015) Looking back for the future: local knowledge and palaeoecology inform biocultural restoration of coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. Human Ecology 43: 681695.
McGlone M.S., Wilmshurst J.M. & Leach H.M. (2005) An ecological and historical review of bracken (Pteridium esculentum) in New Zealand, and its cultural significance. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 29: 165184.
McWethy D.B., Wilmshurst J.M., Whitlock C., Wood J.R. & McGlone M.S. (2014) A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transitions following Polynesian arrival in New Zealand. PLoS ONE 9: e111328.
Maloney B.K. (1980) Pollen analytical evidence for early forest clearance in North Sumatra. Nature 287: 324326.
Maloney B.K. (1985) Man's impact on the rainforests of West Malesia: the palynological record. Journal of Biogeography 12: 537558.
Manne L.L., Brooks T.M. & Pimm S.L. (1999) Relative risk of extinction of passerine birds on continents and islands. Nature 399: 258261.
Margono B.A., Potapov P.V., Turubanova S., Stolle F. & Hansen M.C. (2014) Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nature Climate Change 4: 730735.
Meehan H.J., McConkey K.R. & Drake D.R. (2002) Potential disruptions to seed dispersal mutualisms in Tonga, Western Polynesia. Journal of Biogeography 29: 695712.
Mey E. (1990) Eine neue ausgestorbene Vogel-Ischnozere von Neuseeland, Huiacola extinctus (Insecta, Phthiraptera). Zoologischer Anzeiger 224: 4973.
Meyer J.-Y. & Florence J. (1996) Tahiti's native flora endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae). Journal of Biogeography 23: 775781.
Minteer B.A., Collins J.P., Love K.E. & Puschendorf R. (2014) Avoiding (re)extinction. Science 344: 260261.
Miskelly C.M. & Powlesland R.G. (2013) Conservation translocations of New Zealand birds, 1863–2012. Notornis 60: 328.
Miskelly C.M., Taylor G.A., Gummer H. & Williams R. (2009) Translocations of eight species of burrow-nesting seabirds (genera Pterodroma, Pelecanoides, Pachyptila and Puffinus: family Procellariidae). Biological Conservation 142: 19651980.
Morwood M.J., Sutikna T., Saptomo E.W., Westaway K.E., Due R.A., Moore M.W. et al. (2008) Climate, people and faunal succession on Java, Indonesia: evidence from Song Gupuh. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 17761789.
Nogués-Bravo D., Simberloff D., Rahbek C. & Sanders N.J. (2016) Rewilding is the new Pandora's Box in conservation. Current Biology 26: R87–R91.
Olson S.L. & Wingate D.B. (2000) Two new species of flightless rails (Aves: Rallidae) from the middle Pleistocene ‘crane fauna’ of Bermuda. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 113: 356368.
Page W.S. & D'Argent G. (1997) A Vegetation Survey of Mauritius. Port Louis, Mauritius: Mauritian Wildlife Foundation.
Pedrono M., Griffiths O.L., Clausen A., Smith L.L., Griffiths C.J., Wilmé L. & Burney D.A. (2013) Using a surviving lineage of Madagascar's vanished megafauna for ecological restoration. Biological Conservation 159: 501506.
Perry G.L.W., Wilmshurst J.M., McGlone M.S., McWethy D.B. & Whitlock C. (2012) Explaining fire-driven landscape transformation during the Initial Burning Period of New Zealand's prehistory. Global Change Biology 18: 16091621.
Perry G.L., Wheeler A., Wood J.R. & Wilmshurst J.M. (2014) A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes). Quaternary Science Reviews 105: 126135.
Piper P.J., Rabett R.J. & Kurui E.B. (2008) Using community, composition and structural variation in terminal Pleistocene vertebrate assemblages to identify human hunting behaviour at the Niah Caves, Borneo. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 28: 8898.
Prebble M. (2008) No fruit on that beautiful shore: what plants were introduced to the subtropical Polynesian islands prior to European contact. Terra Australis 29: 227251.
Prebble M. & Dowe J.L. (2008) The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 25462567.
Rabett R.J. & Piper P.J. (2012) The emergence of bone technologies at the end of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia: regional and evolutionary implications. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22: 3756.
Rando J.C. & Alcover J.A. (2007) Evidence for a second western Palaearctic seabird extinction during the last Millennium: the lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni . IBIS 150: 188192.
Rando J.C., Pieper H. & Alcover J.A. (2014) Radiocarbon evidence for house mouse presence on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20133126.
Rawlence N.J., Metcalf J., Wood J.R., Worthy T.H., Austin J.J. & Cooper A. (2012) The effect of climate and environmental change on the megafaunal moa of New Zealand in the absence of humans. Quaternary Science Reviews 50: 141153.
Rocha L.A., Aleixo A., Allen G., Almeda F., Baldwin C.C., Barclay M.V.L. et al. (2014) Specimen collection: an essential tool. Science 344: 814815.
Roff D.A. & Roff R.J. (2003) Of rats and Maoris: a novel method for the analysis of patterns of extinction in the New Zealand avifauna before European contact. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5: 759779.
Russell J.C., Innes J.G., Brown P.H. & Byrom A.E. (2015) Predator-free New Zealand: conservation country. BioScience 65: 520525.
Russel J.C., Meyer J.-Y., Holmes N.D. & Pagad S. (in press) Invasive alien species on islands: impacts, distribution, interactions and management. Environmental Conservation.
Sax D.F. & Gaines S.D. (2008) Species invasions and extinction: the future of native biodiversity on islands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (Suppl. 1): 1149011497.
Schüle W. (1993) Mammals, vegetation and the initial human settlement of the Mediterranean islands: a palaeoecological approach. Journal of Biogeography 20: 399412.
Seddon P.J., Strauss W.M. & Innes J. (2012) Animal translocations: what are they and why do we do them? In: Reintroduction Biology: Integrating Science and Management, eds. Ewen J.G., Armstrong D.P., Parker K.A. & Seddon P.J., pp. 132. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Seddon P.J., Griffiths C.J., Soorae P.S. & Armstrong D.P. (2014) Reversing defaunation: restoring species in a changing world. Science 345: 406412.
Shapiro B. (2015) How to Clone a Mammoth. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
Smith J.L., Mulder C.P.H. & Ellis J.C. (2011) Seabirds as ecosystem engineers: nutrient inputs and physical disturbance. In: Seabird Islands: Ecology, Invasion and Restoration, eds. Mulder C.P.H., Anderson W.B., Towns D.R. & Bellingham P.J., pp. 2755. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Sobral F.L., Lees A.C. & Cianciaruso M.V. (2016) Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages. Ecology Letters 19: 10911100.
Sodhi N.S., Koh L.P., Brook B.W. & Ng P.K.L. (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 654660.
Steadman D.W. (1995) Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific Island birds: biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267: 11231131.
Steadman D.W. (1996) Human-caused extinction of birds. In: Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources, eds. Reaka-Kudla M.L., Wilson D.E. & Wilson E.O, pp. 139161. Washington, DC, USA: Joseph Henry Press.
Steadman D.W. (2006) Extinction & Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. Chicago, IL, USA: Chicago University Press.
Steadman D.W., Pregill G.K. & Burley D.V. (2002) Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 36733677.
Swisher C.C., Curtis van den Bergh G.H., Suprijo G.D., Widiasmoro A.. (1994) Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science 263: 11181121.
Taylor R. (1979) How the Macquarie Island parakeet became extinct. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 2: 4245.
Terzopoulou S., Rigal F., Whittaker R.J., Borges P.A.V. & Triantis K.A. (2015) Drivers of extinction: the case of Azorean beetles. Biology Letters 11: 20150273.
Thaman R. (2002) Threats to Pacific Island biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in the Pacific Islands. Development Bulletin 58: 2327.
Triantis K.A., Borges P.A.V., Ladle R.J., Hortal J., Cardoso P., Gaspar C. et al. (2010) Extinction debt on oceanic islands. Ecography 33: 285294.
Turvey S.T., Oliver J.R., Narganes Y.M. & Rye P. (2007) Late Holocene extinction of Puerto Rican native land mammals. Biology Letters 3: 193196.
Valenzuela A. & Alcover J.A. (2013) Radiocarbon evidence for a prehistoric deliberate translocation: the weasel (Mustela nivalis) of Mallorca. Biological Invasions 15: 717722.
Van Den Bergh G.D., Li B., Brumm A., Grün R., Yurnaldi D., Moore M.W., Kurniawan I., Setiawan R., Aziz F., Roberts R.G. & Storey M. (2016) Earliest hominin occupation of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature 529: 208211.
Vigne J.D., Zazzo A., Saliège J.F., Poplin F., Guilaine J. & Simmons A. (2009) Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 1613516138.
Warner R.E. (1968) The role of introduced diseases in the extinction of the endemic Hawaiian avifauna. The Condor 70: 101120.
Watts C., Stringer I., Sherley G., Gibbs G. & Green C. (2008) History of weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) translocation in New Zealand: lessons learned, islands as sanctuaries and the future. Journal of Insect Conservation 12: 359370.
Weisler M.I. (1995) Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 377404.
Wikelski M., Foufopoulos J., Vargas H. & Snell H. (2004) Galápagos birds and diseases: invasive pathogens as threats for island species. Ecology and Society 9: 5.
Wilmshurst J.M., Anderson A.J., Higham T.F.G. & Worthy T.H. (2008) Dating the late prehistoric dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand using the commensal Pacific rat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 76767680.
Wilmshurst J.M., Hunt T.L., Lipo C.P. & Anderson A.J. (2011) High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108: 18151820.
Wilmshurst J.M., Moar N.T., Wood J.R., Bellingham P., Findlater A., Robinson J. & Stone C. (2014) Pollen and ancient DNA provide conservation baselines for offshore islands in New Zealand. Conservation Biology 28: 202212.
Wood J.R. (2013) New Zealand, 500 years ago. In: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Extinction, ed. MacLeod N., pp. 595604. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: Gale.
Wood J.R., Perry G.L.W. & Wilmshurst J.M. (2017) Using palaeoecology to determine baseline ecological requirements and interaction networks for de-extinction candidate species. Functional Ecology 31: 10121020.
Wood J.R. & Wilmshurst J.M. (2017) Changes in New Zealand forest plant communities following the prehistoric extinction of avian megaherbivores. Journal of Vegetation Science 28: 160171.
Wood J.R., Wilmshurst J.M., Holzapfel A.S., Worthy T.H. & Cooper A. (2012) A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology. Conservation Biology 26: 10911099.
Wood J.R., Wilmshurst J.M., Rawlence N.J., Bonner K.I., Worthy T.H., Kinsella J.M. & Cooper A. (2013) A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). PLoS ONE 8: e57315.
Worthy T.H. & Holdaway R.N. (2002) The Lost World of the Moa. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.
Wyatt K.B., Campos P.F., Gilbert M.T.P., Kolokotronis S., Hynes W.H., DeSalle R. et al. (2008) Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease. PLoS ONE 3: e3602.
Zazzo A., Lebon M., Quiles A., Reiche I. & Vigne J.D. (2015) Direct dating and physico-chemical analyses cast doubts on the coexistence of humans and dwarf hippos in Cyprus. PLoS ONE 10: e0134429.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 14
Total number of PDF views: 141 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1218 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th July 2017 - 11th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.