Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Tourism, Environment, and Sustainable Development

  • Richard W. Butler (a1)
Extract

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of tourism and related developments upon the environment of ‘destination areas’. The increasing popularity of the concept of sustainable development has resulted in tourism being viewed as an activity which could easily be developed along those appropriate lines. It is argued, however, that such a viewpoint is often simplistic and naïve, because of a lack of understanding of the complex nature of tourism. While tourism is dependent upon the environment for much of its well-being, the prevailing lack of knowledge, responsibility, and long-term planning, has often resulted in development which is neither environmentally nor culturally sympathetic to the host area and community.

A broad definition of environment is necessary in this context, encompassing both the physical and human realms and also Nature's, as is an equally wide view of human leisure activities, which needs to include far more than tourism. It is necessary to take a critical view of some alternative approaches to mass-tourism, which have been suggested as appropriate for environmentally significant areas; for at least some of the problems resulting from tourism-related developments are more profound, and less easily solved, than has often been suggested. Solutions are inevitably a combination of compromise and positive planning and management, and successful examples are difficult to find. Improved understanding of the complex nature of tourism, and of its linkages to the environment, is crucial if a symbiotic relationship is to be attained and maintained.

It is necessary to appreciate that tourist destination areas evolve and change over time, both responding to, and being altered by, changes in tourism. They are not static environments, and need responsible and pro-active planning and management. Reliance upon local initiatives, uncoordinated planning, and self-regulation in a situation of ill-defined responsibility, will not result in a secure long-term future for either the tourist industry or the environment of the destination area. Coordination of policies, pro-active planning, acceptance of limitations on growth, education of all parties involved, and commitment to a long-term viewpoint, are prerequisites to the successful linking of tourism and sustainable development.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Brugger, E.A., Furrer, G., Messerli, B. & Messerli, P. (1984). The Transformation of the Swiss Mountain Regions. Paul Haupt, Berne, Switzerland: 699 pp., illustr.
Butler, R.W. (1974). The social implications of tourist developments. Annals of Tourism Research, 2(2), pp. 100–11.
Butler, R.W. (1980). The concept of a tourist-area cycle of evolution and implications for management. The Canadian Geographer, 24 pp. 512, illustr.
Christaller, W. (1963). Some considerations of tourism location in Europe: the peripheral regions — underdeveloped countries — recreation areas. Papers of the Regional Science Association, 12 pp. 95105.
Dickinson, G. (1982). An Assessment of Pathway Damage and Management: The West Highland Way. Geography Department, Occasional Paper No. 10, Glasgow University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK: i + 15 pp.
Edington, J.M. & Edington, M.A. (1986). Ecology, Recreation and Tourism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, UK: viii + 200 pp., illustr.
English Tourist Board (1979). English Cathedrals and Tourism. English Tourist Board, London, England, UK: 128 pp., illustr.
Grosjean, G. (1984). Visual and aesthetic changes in landscape. Pp. 71–9, illustr., in The Transformation of Swiss Mountain Regions (Eds E.A. Brugger, G. Furrer, B. Messerli & P. Messerli) q.v.
Gunn, C.A. (1976). Tourism-recreation-conservation synergism. Contact, 8(4), pp. 128–38.
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162 pp. 1243–8.
Hayward, S.J., Gomez, V.H. & Sterrer, W. (1981). Bermuda's Delicate Balance. Bermuda National Trust, Nassua, Bermuda: vii + 402 pp., illustr.
Holder, J.S. (1987). The pattern and impact of tourism on the environment in the Carribean. Pp. 720 in Environmentally Sound Tourism Development in The Caribbean (Ed. Edward, F.). University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada: xxiii + 143 pp.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (cited as IUCN) (1980). World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland: ‘iii + 70 pp.’ (unnumbered), illustr.
Jackson, E.L. (1984). Energy development, tourism and nature conservation in Iceland. Pp. 387403 in Northern Ecology and Resource Management (Eds Oldson, R. et al. ). University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: xvii + 438 pp., illustr.
Jayal, N.D. & Motwani, M. (Eds) (1986). Conservation, Tourism and Mountaineering in the Himalayas. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun, India: 212 pp., illustr.
Jefferies, B.E. (1984). The Sherpas of Sagarmatha: the effects of a national park on the local people. Pp. 473–8 in National Parks, Conservation and Development (Eds McNeely, J. A. & Miller, K.R.). Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA: 838 pp.
Kaur, J. (1985). Himalayan Pilgrimages and the New Tourism. Himalayan Books, New Delhi, India: xxii + 300 pp., illustr.
Krippendorf, J. (1984). The capital of tourism in danger. Pp. 427–50, illustr., in The Transformation of Swiss Mountain Regions. (Eds Brugger, E.A., Furrer, G., Messerli, B. & Messerli, P.). Paul Haupt, Berne, Switzerland: 699 pp., illustr.
Lew, A.A. (1987). A framework of tourist attraction research. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(4), pp. 553–75.
Lucas, P.H.C. (1984). How protected areas can help meet society's evolving needs. Pp. 72–9 in National Parks, Conservation and Development. (Eds McNeely, J.A. & Miller, K.R.). Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA: 838 pp.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. Harper, New York, NY, USA: xiv + 411 pp.
Mathieson, A. & Wall, G. (1982). Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. Longman, New York, NY, USA: 208 pp., illustr.
Messerli, P. & Brugger, E.A. (1984). Mountain areas between self reliance and dependancy, between economy and ecology: a summary. Pp. ??—19 in The Transformation of the Swiss Mountain Regions (Eds Brugger, E.A., Furrer, G., Messerli, B. & Messerli, P.). Paul Hupt, Berne, Switzerland: 699 pp., illustr.
Mishra, H.R. (1984). A delicate balance: tigers, rhinoceros, tourists and park management vs the needs of the local people in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Pp. 197205 in National Parks, Conservation and Development (Eds McNeely, J.A. & Miller, K.R.). Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA: 838 pp.
Morrison, A. & Dickinson, G. (1987). Tourist development in Spain: growth versus conservation on the Costa Brava. Geography, 72(314), pp. 1625.
Murphy, P.E. (1985). Tourism — A Community Approach. Methuen, New York, NY, USA: xvi + 200 pp., illustr.
Nelson, J.G. & Butler, R.W. (1974). Recreation and the environment. Pp. 290310 in Perspectives on Environment (Eds Manners, I. & Mikesell, M.). Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC, USA: v + 395 pp., illustr.
Plog, S.C. (1973). Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Association Quarterly, 13 pp. 13–6.
Sadler, B. (1987). Sustaining tomorrow and endless summer: on linking tourism and environment in the Caribbean. Pp. ixxxiii in Environmentally Sound Tourism Development in the Caribbean. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada: xxiii + 143 pp.
Wall, G. (MS). Economic aspects of tourism and heritage. To appear in Conference Proceedings, Tourism and Heritage Preservation, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
Wilkinson, P. (1987). Tourism in small island nations: a fragile independence. Leisure Studies, 6(2), pp. 127–46.
World Commission on Environment and Development (cited as WCED) (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, UK: xv + 383 pp., illustr.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed