Agroforestry systems have long been implemented in Bolivia, but little is known about their overall current status. Interviews with farmers, policymakers and members of civil society organizations about the challenges and opportunities that agroforestry faces, as well as field visits to agroforestry projects revealed a wide range of agroforestry initiatives in Bolivia that provide ecosystem services, food and income to local families. All interviewees attributed a high potential to agroforestry, for example, to promote biodiversity, water conservation, food sovereignty and adaptation to climate change impacts. However, agroforestry initiatives lacked support because government incentives were channelled to cattle rearing and large-scale monocultures rather than diversified farming systems, and agroforestry initiatives tended to be small and isolated. A nationwide policy is needed which is coordinated with civil society organizations and individual farmers and strategically and efficiently supports agroforestry initiatives – especially in the most vulnerable first years of establishment – through extension services and access to materials, markets, knowledge and financial resources.