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    Harrison, Jill Lindsey 2015. Coopted environmental justice? Activists’ roles in shaping EJ policy implementation. Environmental Sociology, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 241.


ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES: Accounting for Diversity in Environmental Justice Screening Tools: Toward Multiple Indices of Disproportionate Impact

  • Ryan Holifield (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2014

To comply with President Bill Clinton’s Executive Order 12898 addressing environmental justice, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working for over two decades to develop consistent indices and screening tools to measure disproportionate impact and identify environmental justice communities. Its efforts have been complicated by methodological problems, divergent interpretations of policy, and concerns about the misuse of such screening tools. This review of recent scholarship and developments in EPA environmental justice policy proposes that instead of a single index of disproportionate impact associated with a single type of environmental justice community, regulatory agencies should aim to produce screening tools that incorporate multiple indices of impact and a diverse typology of environmental justice communities. It argues that adopting such an approach would not only better reflect the environmental justice movement’s emphasis on difference and diversity, but also produce more effective and acceptable screening tools that are less susceptible to misuse.

Environmental Practice 16: 77–86 (2014)

Corresponding author
Address correspondence to: Ryan Holifield¸ Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin, PO Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201; (phone) 1-414-229-4868; (fax) 1-414-229-3981; (e-mail)
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Environmental Practice
  • ISSN: 1466-0466
  • EISSN: 1466-0474
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-practice
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