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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    De Stefano, L. Fornés, J.M. López-Geta, J.A. and Villarroya, F. 2015. Groundwater use in Spain: an overview in light of the EU Water Framework Directive. International Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 640.

    Yin, Runsheng Liu, Tianjun Yao, Shunbo and Zhao, Minjuan 2013. Designing and implementing payments for ecosystem services programs: Lessons learned from China's cropland restoration experience. Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 35, p. 66.

    Abdullaev, Iskandar Kazbekov, Jusipbek Manthritilake, Herath and Jumaboev, Kahramon 2010. Water User Groups in Central Asia: Emerging Form of Collective Action in Irrigation Water Management. Water Resources Management, Vol. 24, Issue. 5, p. 1029.


Research on the Commons: Lessons for Environmental Resource Managers


In his famous essay on “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Hardin (1968) derived predictions of environmental disaster from the proposition that people are entirely selfish by nature. The article has had two important effects. In regard to public policy, it has lent intellectual support to approaches based on Hardin's idea that natural resources can be sustained only if management responsibilities lie in a single place. Policymakers in many countries took this advice in one of two directions—giving responsibility to government agencies to act on behalf of all, or devolving responsibility to individual resource users in campaigns of privatization intended to empower markets.

Corresponding author
National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418; (fax) 202-334-3584; (e-mail)
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Environmental Practice
  • ISSN: 1466-0466
  • EISSN: 1466-0474
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-practice
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