Skip to main content
×
×
Home

An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with a bakery, New York, 1994: The 1968 ‘West Branch, Michigan’ outbreak repeated

  • A. C. Weltman (a1) (a2), N. M. Bennett (a3), D. A. Ackman (a1) (a4), J. H. Misage (a3), J. J. Campana (a3), L. S. Fine (a5), A. S. Doniger (a3), G. J. Balzano (a6) and G. S. Birkhead (a4) (a7)...
Summary

In a community hepatitis A outbreak in the Rochester, New York area, 64 of 79 (81 %) people with anti-hepatitis A 1gM-antibodies and onset of symptoms from 9 April–31 May 1994, recalled eating food obtained from a retail buyer's club. Eleven (65%) of 17 households with cases contained club members compared with 7 (21%) of 34 neighbourhood-matched control-households (matched odds ratio 8·5; 95% CI 1·7–41·6). Club employees who ate sugar-glazed baked goods were at fourfold increased risk for hepatitis. The source of infection was an 1gM- positive baker who contaminated baked goods while applying sugar glaze. Computer-generated purchase lists implicated 11–12 March and 21–24 March as the most likely dates when contamination occurred. This investigation demonstrates the importance of food workers adhering to established hygiene practices. Computer-generated commercial datasets can be useful in epidemiologic investigations.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* C. Weltman, Pennsylvania State Department of Health, Bureau of Epidemiology – Rm. 909, P.O. Box 90, Harrisburg, PA 17108, USA.
References
Hide All
1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary of notifiable diseases, 1993. MMWR 1993; 42:67.
2.Carl, M, Francis, DP,Maynard, JE. Food-borne hepatitis A: Recommendations for control. J Infect Dis 1983; 148: 1133–5.
3.Mutton, KJ, Gust, ID. Public health aspects of hepatitis A. In: Gerety, RJ, ed. Hepatitis A. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984: 133–61.
4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Food-borne hepatitis A – Alaska, Florida, North Carolina, Washington. MMWR 1990; 39: 228–32.
5.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Food-borne hepatitis A – Missouri, Wisconsin, and Alaska, 1990–1992. MMWR 1993; 42: 526–9.
6.Schoenbaum, SC, Baker, O, Jezek, Z. Common-source outbreak of hepatitis due to glazed and iced pastries. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 104: 7480.
7.Roueché, B. The West Branch Study. In: The medical detectives. New York: Washington Square Press, 1982: 233–52.
8.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case study: An outbreak of jaundice in a rural county. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 1970.
9.Kleinbaum, DG, Kupper, LL, Morgenstern, H. Epidemiologic research: principles and quantitative methods. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982: 394–7.
10.Martin, D, Austin, H. An efficient program for computing maximum likelihood estimates and exact confidence limits for a common odds ratio. Epidemiol 1991; 2: 359–62.
11.Greenland, S, Robins, JM. Estimation of a common effect parameter from sparse follow-up data. Biometrics 1985; 41: 5568.
12.Sobsey, MD, Shields, PA, Hauchman, FS, et al. Survival and persistence of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples. In: Zuckerman, AJ, ed. Viral hepatitis and liver disease. New York: Alan R Liss, 1988: 121–4.
13.Francis, DP, Maynard, JE. The transmission and outcome of hepatitis A, B, and non-A, non-B: A review. Epidemiol Rev 1979; 1: 1731.
14.McCaustland, KA, Bond, WW, Bradley, WP, Ebert, JW, Maynard, JE. Survival of hepatitis A virus in feces after drying and storage for one month. J Clin Microbiol 1982; 16: 957–8.
15.Lemon, SM. Type A viral hepatitis: New developments in an old disease. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1059–67.
16.Levy, BS, Fontaine, RE, Smith, CA, et al. A large food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A: Possible contamination via oropharyngeal secretions. JAMA 1975; 234: 289–94.
17.Osterholm, MT, Kantor, RJ, Bradley, DW, et al. Immunoglobulin M-specific serologic testing in an outbreak of foodborne viral hepatitis, type A. Am J Epidemiol 1980; 112: 816.
18.Boyd, M. New directions in supermarkets. Incentive 1994; 168: 41–5.
19.Chanil, D. Wholesale clubs: A new era? Discount Merchandiser 1994; 34: 3851.
20.Kotler, P, Armstrong, G. Principles of marketing, 6th ed.Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice Hall, 1994: 105–26.
21.David Shepard Associates. The new direct marketing, 2nd ed.Burr Ridge, IL; Irwin Professional Publishing; 1995: 5376.
22.New York State Department of Health. State Sanitary Code, Part 14, Food Service Establishments, 1992; 10 NYCRR 14–.1.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed