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    Thompson, Kimberly M. Odahowski, Cassie L. Goodson, James L. Reef, Susan E. and Perry, Robert T. 2016. Synthesis of Evidence to Characterize National Measles and Rubella Exposure and Immunization Histories. Risk Analysis, Vol. 36, Issue. 7, p. 1427.

    Hukic, M Ravlija, J Karakas, S Mulaomerovic, M Dedeic Ljubovic, A Salimović-Besic, I Seremet, M Ahmetagic, S Comor, A and Feric, E 2015. An ongoing measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014 to 2015. Eurosurveillance, Vol. 20, Issue. 9, p. 21047.


An outbreak of rubella in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between December 2009 and May 2010 indicates failure to vaccinate during wartime (1992–1995)

  • M. HUKIC (a1), J. M. HÜBSCHEN (a2), M. SEREMET (a1), I. SALIMOVIC-BESIC (a1), M. MULAOMEROVIC (a3), N. MEHINOVIC (a4), S. KARAKAS (a5), E. CHARPENTIER (a2) and C. P. MULLER (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 April 2011

A rubella outbreak involving 1900 cases was recorded in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between mid-December 2009 and the end of May 2010. Sera from 389 suspected rubella cases were examined for the presence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. A total of 32 throat swabs from suspected rubella cases were tested by RT–PCR and were used to attempt virus isolation. Most patients (945/1900, 49·73%) had never received rubella vaccination or had an unknown vaccination status (563/1900, 29·63%). About 45% (178/389) of suspected rubella patients were IgM positive. From 13 of the throat swabs a virus isolate and E1 gene sequences attributed to genotype 2B were obtained. The rubella outbreak was due to failure to vaccinate during the war period (1992–1995) and emphasizes the need for additional vaccination opportunities.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Prof. Dr. C. P. Muller, Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg. (Email: claude.muller@LNS.ETAT.LU)
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15.S Kasper , Rubella in Austria 2008–2009: no longer a typical childhood disease. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010; 29: 448452.

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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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