Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014

  • T. L. FULLER (a1), M. F. DUCATEZ (a2) (a3), K. Y. NJABO (a1), E. COUACY-HYMANN (a4), A. CHASAR (a1), G. L. APLOGAN (a5), S. LAO (a1), F. AWOUME (a6), A. TÉHOU (a7), Q. LANGEOIS (a2) (a3), S. KRAUSS (a8) and T. B. SMITH (a1) (a9)...

Summary

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT–PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Author for correspondence: Dr T. L. Fuller, 619 Charles E. Young Drive East, La Kretz Hall Suite 300, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles 90049, USA. (Email: fullertl@ucla.edu)

References

Hide All
1. Freidl, GS, et al. Influenza at the animal-human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1). Eurosurveillance 2014; 19: 826.
2. Ducatez, MF, et al. Molecular and antigenic evolution and geographical spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in western Africa. Journal of General Virology 2007; 88: 22972306.
3. World Organisation for Animal Health. World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) Interface. Accessed 20 October 2014 (http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home). Paris: World Organisation for Animal Health, 2014.
4. Snoeck, CJ, et al. Reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 viruses in African wild birds. Journal of General Virology 2011; 92: 11721183.
5. Couacy-Hymann, E, et al. Surveillance for influenza viruses in poultry and swine, West Africa, 2006–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2012; 18: 14461452.
6. Gaidet, N, et al. Understanding the ecological drivers of avian influenza virus infection in wildfowl: a continental-scale study across Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 2012; 279: 1131–41.
7. Cappelle, J, et al. Circulation of avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Inner Niger Delta, Mali. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2012; 6: 240244.
8. Buch, J, et al. GISAID – a global initiative on sharing all influenza data. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2011; 5: 419.
9. Cumming, GS, et al. The ecology of influenza A viruses in wild birds in southern Africa. EcoHealth 2011; 8: 413.
10. Fuller, TL, et al. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010; 10: 187.
11. Hoffmann, E, et al. Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses. Archives of Virology 2001; 146: 22752289.
12. Webster, RG, et al. WHO Manual on Animal Influenza Diagnosis and Surveillance. WHO Global Influenza Programme, 2002.
13. Kindt, R, Coe, R. Tree Diversity Analysis. A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre, 2005.
14. Fatiregun, AA, Saani, MM. Knowledge, attitudes and compliance of poultry workers with preventive measures for avian influenza in Lagelu, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2007; 2: 130134.
15. Okoye, J, et al. Serologic evidence of avian influenza virus infections among Nigerian agricultural workers. Journal of Medical Virology 2013; 85: 670676.
16. Kirunda, H, et al. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in livestock and free-living waterfowl in Uganda. BMC Veterinary Research 2014; 10: 50.
17. Fouchier, RAM, et al. Detection of influenza A viruses from different species by PCR amplification of conserved sequences in the matrix gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 38: 40964101.
18. Caron, A, et al. Persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in waterfowl in a southern African ecosystem. Ecohealth 2011; 8: 109115.
19. Gao, R, et al. Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. New England Journal of Medicine 2013; 368: 18881897.
20. Guan, Y, Smith, GJD. The emergence and diversification of panzootic H5N1 influenza viruses. Virus Research 2013; 178: 3543.
21. Joannis, TM, et al. Serologic and virologic surveillance of avian influenza in Nigeria, 2006–7. Eurosurveillance 2008; 13: 15.
22. Nwankwo, IO, et al. Avian influenza virus infection in apparently healthy domestic birds in Sokoto, Nigeria. Veterinaria Italiana 2012; 48: 309312.
23. Munyua, PM, et al. Detection of influenza A virus in live bird markets in Kenya, 20092011. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2013; 7: 113119.
24. Odoom, JK, et al. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011. BMC Public Health 2012; 12: 957.
25. Tukur, HM. Egg production in Africa. In: Van Immerseel, F, Nys, Y, Bain, M, eds. Improving the Safety and Quality of Eggs and Egg Products Egg Safety and Nutritional Quality. Philadelphia: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011, pp. 2738.
26. Larison, B, et al. Spillover of pH1N1 to swine in Cameroon: an investigation of risk factors. BMC Veterinary Research 2014; 10: 55.
27. Trock, SC, et al. Development of an influenza virologic risk assessment tool. Avian Diseases 2012; 56: 10581061.
28. Khazeni, N, et al. Health and economic benefits of early vaccination and nonpharmaceutical inter ventions for a human influenza A (H7N9) pandemic: a modeling study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2014; 160: 684694.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fuller Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 Word (30 KB)
30 KB

Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010–2014

  • T. L. FULLER (a1), M. F. DUCATEZ (a2) (a3), K. Y. NJABO (a1), E. COUACY-HYMANN (a4), A. CHASAR (a1), G. L. APLOGAN (a5), S. LAO (a1), F. AWOUME (a6), A. TÉHOU (a7), Q. LANGEOIS (a2) (a3), S. KRAUSS (a8) and T. B. SMITH (a1) (a9)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed