This article examines the evaluation of a bancroftian filariasis control programme undertaken in Pondicherry from 1981–5. Integrated vector management was applied in one half of the town, and routine operations under the national programme (larviciding and chemotherapy) continued in the comparison area. The programme was evaluated by monitoring relative change in the epidemiological statistics of both populations. The results indicate that there was significant reduction in prevalence of microfilaraemia in juveniles in the controlled area. An apparent reduction in intensity of microfilaraemia was also observed but this was a consequence of the reduction in prevalence, since the density of microfilariae remained unchanged. The results suggest that primary constraints on the epidemiological evaluation of the vector control of filariasis are the longevity and the population characteristics of the parasite.
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