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A beef-associated outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in The Netherlands with implications for national and international policy

  • M. KIVI (a1) (a2), A. HOFHUIS (a1), D. W. NOTERMANS (a1), W. J. B. WANNET (a1), M. E. O. C. HECK (a1), A. W. VAN DE GIESSEN (a1), Y. T. H. P. VAN DUYNHOVEN (a1), O. F. J. STENVERS (a3), A. BOSMAN (a1) (a2) and W. VAN PELT (a1)...

A ten-fold increase in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cases in The Netherlands during September–November 2005 prompted an outbreak investigation. A population-based matched case-control study included 56 cases and 100 controls. Risk factors for infection were consumption of a pre-processed raw beef product (odds ratio 4·2, 95% confidence interval 1·5–12·0) and of food from mobile caterers (odds ratio 4·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1–22·1). Bacterial molecular typing established a link with another DT104 outbreak in Denmark caused by beef from a third European country. The incriminated beef was traced in The Netherlands and sampling yielded DT104 of the outbreak-associated molecular type. We concluded that this outbreak was caused by imported contaminated beef. Consumers should be informed about presence of raw meat in pre-processed food products. Optimal utilization of international networks and testing and traceability of foodstuffs has the potential to prevent foodborne infections.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr M. Kivi, Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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