1. Anon. ACMSF Second Report on Campylobacter. London, UK: HMSO, 2004.
2. Charlett, A, et al. Point source outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni infection – are they more common than we think and what might cause them? Epidemiology and Infection 2003; 130: 367–375.
3. Wheeler, JG, et al. Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance. British Medical Journal 1999; 318: 1046–1050.
4. Mangen, MJJ, de Wit, GA, Havelaar, AH. Economic analysis of Campylobacter control in the Dutch broiler meat chain. Agribusiness 2007; 23: 173–192.
5. Butzler, JP. Campylobacter, from obscurity to celebrity. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2004; 10: 868–876.
6. Sheppard, A. The Structure and Economics of Broiler Production in England. Special Studies in Agricultural Economics, vol. 59. Exeter: University of Exeter, 2002.
7. Meldrum, RJ, Tucker, D, Edwards, C. Baseline rates of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken in Wales, United Kingdom, in 2002. Journal of Food Protection 2004; 67: 1226–1228.
8. Allen, VM, et al. Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses during processing in relation to flock colonisation. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2007; 113: 54–61.
9. Young, KT, Davis, LM, DiRita, VJ. Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2007; 5: 665–679.
10. Bouwknegt, M, et al. Risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Dutch broiler flocks. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2004; 62: 35–49.
11. Cardinale, E, et al. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2004; 64: 15–25.
12. Gregory, E, et al. Epidemiological study of Campylobacter spp. in broilers: source, time of colonization, and prevalence. Avian Disease 1997; 41: 890–898.
13. van de Giessen, A, et al. Epidemiological study on risk factors and risk reducing measures for Campylobacter infections in Dutch broiler flocks. Epidemiology and Infection 1996; 117: 245–250.
14. van de Giessen, A, et al. Reduction of Campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures. Epidemiology and Infection 1998; 121: 57–66.
15. McDowell, S, et al. Campylobacter spp. in conventional broiler flocks in Northern Ireland: epidemiology and risk factors. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2008. Published online: 4 February 2008. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.12.010.
16. Kovats, RS, et al. Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study. International Journal of Biometeorology 2005; 49: 207–214.
17. Patrick, ME, et al. Effects of climate on incidence of Campylobacter spp. in humans and prevalence in broiler flocks in Denmark. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70: 7474–7480.
18. Wallace, J, et al. Seasonality of thermophilic Campylobacter populations in chickens. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1997; 82: 219–224.
19. Guerin, MT, et al. A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001–2004. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2007; 49.
20. Evans, SJ, Sayers, AR. A longitudinal study of campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in Great Britain. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2000; 46: 209–223.
21. Barrios, PR, et al. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Iceland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2006; 74: 264–278.
22. Bull, S, et al. Flock health indicators and campylobacter in commercial housed broilers reared in Great Britain. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008; 74: 5408–5413.
23. Thrusfield, M. Veterinary Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 1995.
24. Pinheiro, J, Bates, D. Mixed-Effects modelling in S and S-PLUS. Statistics in Computing. New York: Springer, 2000.
25. R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2008.
27. Therneau, TM, Grambsch, PM. Modeling survival data: extending the Cox model. In: Dietz, K, Gail, M, Krickeberg, K, Samet, J, Tsiatis, A eds. Statistics for Biology and Health. New York: Springer, 2000.
28. Condon, J, et al. Estimation of infection prevalence from correlated binomial samples. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2004; 65: 239–239.
29. Bull, SA, et al. Sources of Campylobacter spp. colonizing housed broiler flocks during rearing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2006; 72: 645–652.
30. Katsma, WEA, et al. Assessing interventions to reduce the risk of Campylobacter prevalence in broilers. Zoonoses and Public Health 2007; 54: 863–875.
31. Farady, J. Extending the Linear Model with R: Generalised Linear Mixed Effects and Nonparametric Regression Models. Boca Raton, USA: Chapman & Hall, 2006.
32. Tam, CC, et al. Temperature dependence of reported Campylobacter infection in England, 1989–1999. Epidemiology and Infection 2006; 134: 119–125.
33. Stern, NJ, et al. Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease. Epidemiology and Infection 2003; 130: 23–32.
34. Jacobs-Reitsma, WF, Bolder, NM, Mulder, R. Cecal carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Dutch broiler flocks at slaughter – a one-year study. Poultry Science 1994; 73: 1260–1266.
35. Berndtson, E, et al. A 1-year epidemiological study of campylobacters in 18 Swedish chicken farms. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 1996; 26: 167–185.
36. Heuer, OE, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2001; 33: 269–274.
37. Kapperud, G, et al. Epidemiologic investigation of risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Norwegian broiler flocks. Epidemiology and Infection 1993; 111: 245–255.
38. Wedderkopp, A, et al. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2001; 68: 53–59.
39. Cook, KL, Bolster, CH. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli in groundwater during prolonged starvation at low temperatures. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2007; 103: 573–583.
40. Jones, K. Campylobacters in water, sewage and the environment. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2001; 90: 68S–79S.
41. Line, JE. Influence of relative humidity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 2006; 85: 1145–1150.
42. Berg, C. Pododermatitis and hock burn in broiler chickens. In: Weeks, C, Butterworth, Aeds. Measuring and Auditing Broiler Welfare. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2004.
43. Manning, L, Chadd, S, Baines, R. Key health and welfare indicators for broiler production. World's Poultry Science Journal 2007; 63: 46–62.
44. Ekdahl, K, Normann, B, Andersson, Y. Could flies explain the elusive epidemiology of campylobacteriosis? BMC Infectious Diseases 2005; 5: 112.
45. Hald, B, Sommer, HM, Skovgard, H. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 1951–1953.
46. Nygard, K, et al. Association between environmental risk factors and campylobacter infections in Sweden. Epidemiology and Infection 2004; 132: 317–325.
47. Stanley, K, Jones, K. Cattle and sheep farms as reservoirs of Campylobacter. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2003; 94: 104S–113S.
48. Brown, PE, et al. Frequency and spatial distribution of environmental Campylobacter spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70: 6501–6511.