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Case–case analyses of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis using routine national surveillance data in the United States – 2005–2015

  • K. M. Benedict (a1) (a2), S. A. Collier (a1), E. P. Marder (a1) (a3), M. C. Hlavsa (a1), K. E. Fullerton (a1) and J. S. Yoder (a1)...
Abstract

Understanding endemic infectious disease risk factors through traditional epidemiological tools is challenging. Population-based case–control studies are costly and time-consuming. A case–case analyses using surveillance data addresses these limitations by using resources more efficiently. We conducted a case–case analyses using routine surveillance data reported by 16 U.S. states (2005–2015), wherein reported cases of salmonellosis were used as a comparison group to identify exposure associations with reported cases of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Odds ratios adjusted for age and reporting state (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 10 704 cryptosporidiosis cases, 17 544 giardiasis cases, and 106 351 salmonellosis cases were included in this analyses. When compared with cases of salmonellosis, exposure to treated recreational water (aOR 4.7, 95% CI 4.3–5.0) and livestock (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.9–3.5) were significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis and exposure to untreated drinking (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 3.6–4.7) and recreational water (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 3.7–4.5) were associated with giardiasis. Our analyses shows that routine surveillance data with standardised exposure information can be used to identify associations of interest for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis.

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Copyright
This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Katharine Benedict, E-mail: wte7@cdc.gov
References
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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