Skip to main content
×
Home

Common source outbreaks of Campylobacter infection in the USA, 1997–2008

  • E. V. TAYLOR (a1), K. M. HERMAN (a2), E. C. AILES (a3), C. FITZGERALD (a2), J. S. YODER (a2), B. E. MAHON (a2) and R. V. TAUXE (a2)...
Summary
SUMMARY

Campylobacter is a common but decreasing cause of foodborne infections in the USA. Outbreaks are uncommon and have historically differed from sporadic cases in seasonality and contamination source. We reviewed reported outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. From 1997 to 2008, 262 outbreaks were reported, with 9135 illnesses, 159 hospitalizations, and three deaths. The annual mean was 16 outbreaks for 1997–2002, and 28 outbreaks for 2003–2008. Almost half occurred in warmer months. Foodborne transmission was reported in 225 (86%) outbreaks, water in 24 (9%), and animal contact in seven (3%). Dairy products were implicated in 65 (29%) foodborne outbreaks, poultry in 25 (11%), and produce in 12 (5%). Reported outbreaks increased during a period of declining overall incidence, and seasonality of outbreaks resembled that of sporadic infections. Unlike sporadic illnesses, which are primarily attributed to poultry, dairy products are the most common vehicle identified for outbreaks.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr E. V. Taylor, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, MS C-09, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (Email: idp4@cdc.gov)
References
Hide All
1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996–2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2011; 60: 749755.
2.Scallan E, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States – major pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011; 17: 715.
3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet): FoodNet surveillance report for 2008 (final report). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010.
4.Friedman C, et al. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38: 285296.
5.Stafford R, et al. Population-attributable risk estimates for risk factors associated with Campylobacter infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 895901.
6.Tauxe RV. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the United States and other industrialized nations. In: Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ, Tompkins LS, eds. Campylobacter jejuni: current status and future trends. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1992, pp. 919.
7.Olson CK, et al. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in industrialized nations. In: Nachamkin I, Szymanski CM, Blaser MJ, eds. Campylobacter, 3rd edn.Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2008, pp. 172175.
8.Freidman C, et al. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the United States and other industrialized nations. In: Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ, eds. Campylobacter, 2nd edn.Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2000, pp. 127129.
9.Finch MJ, Blake PA. Foodborne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis: the United States experience, 1980–1982. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985; 122: 262268.
10.Pires S, et al. Using outbreak data for source attribution of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis in Europe. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2010; 7: 13511361.
11.Ailes E, et al. Continued decline in the incidence of Campylobacter infections, FoodNet 1996–2006. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2008; 5: 329337.
12.Stanley K, et al. The seasonal variation of thermophilic campylobacters in beef cattle, dairy cattle and calves. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1998; 85: 472480.
13.Food Safety and Inspection Service. New performance standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in young chicken and turkey slaughter establishments; new compliance guides. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2010. Report No.: FR Doc. 2010–11545.
14.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks – United States, 1998–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006; 55: 142.
15.Craun GF, et al. Causes of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States from 1971 to 2006. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2010; 23: 507528.
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance summaries for waterborne disease and outbreaks (http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/statistics/wbdoss/surveillance.html). Accessed 5 January 2012.
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter among attendees of the Washington County Fair – New York, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1999; 48: 803805.
18.European Food Safety Authority. Trends and sources of zoonoses and zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union in 2008. EFSA Journal 2010; 8: 1496.
19.European Food Safety Authority. The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2005. EFSA Journal 2007; 94: 3288.
20.European Food Safety Authority. The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2006. EFSA Journal 2007; 130: 3352.
21.Gormley F, et al. A 17-year review of foodborne outbreaks: describing the continuing decline in England and Wales (1992–2008). Epidemiology and Infection 2011; 139: 688699.
22.Unicomb L, et al. Outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Australia, 2001 to 2006. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2009; 6: 12411250.
23.Wright EP, et al. Milk-borne Campylobacter enteritis in a rural area. Journal of Hygiene 1983; 91: 227233.
24.Waterman SC. The heat-sensitivity of Campyloacter jejuni in milk. Journal of Hygiene 1982; 88: 529533.
25.Greig JD, Ravel A. Analysis of foodborne outbreak data reported internationally for source attribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2009; 130: 7787.
26.Little C, et al. A recipe for disaster: outbreaks of campylobacteriosis associated with poultry liver pate in England and Wales. Epidemiology and Infection 2010; 138: 16911694.
27.Merritt T, Combs B, N P . Campylobacter outbreaks associated with poultry liver dishes. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2011; 35: 299300.
28.Altekruse S, et al. Campylobacter jejuni – an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 28.
29.DeJong A, et al. Cross-contamination in the kitchen: effect of hygiene measures. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2008; 105: 615624.
30.O'Reilly C, et al. A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis with multiple etiologies among resort island visitors and residents: Ohio, 2004. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 44: 506512.
31.Gerner-Smidt P, et al. PulseNet USA: a five-year update. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2006; 3: 919.
32.Gerner-Smidt P, Stroika SG, Fitzgerald C. National molecular subtyping network for food-borne bacterial disease surveillance in the United States. In: Nachamkin I, Szymanska CM, Blaser MJ, eds. Campylobacter, 3rd edn.Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2008, pp. 277288.
33.Frost J, Gillespie I, O'Brien S. Public health implications of Campylobacter outbreaks in England and Wales, 1995–9: epidemiological and microbiological investigations. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 111118.
34.Food Safety and Inspection Service. Potential public health impact of Salmonella and Campylobacter performance guidance for young chickens and turkeys. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Risk Assessment Division, Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection Service, 2010 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Potential_Public_Health_Impact_Salmonella_Campylobacter%20Performance%20Guidance_Chickens_Turkeys.pdf). Accessed 23 August 2011.
35.Newkirk R, Hedberg C, Bender J. Establishing a milkborne disease outbreak profile: potential food defense implications. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2011; 8: 433437.
36.Langer A, et al. Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks, and state laws – United States, 1993–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2012; 18: 385391.
37.Food and Drug Administration. FDA plans to ban raw milk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.
38.LeJeune JT, Rajala-Schultz PJ. Unpasteurized milk: a continued public health threat. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009; 48: 93100.
39.Food and Drug Administration. Produce food safety regulation. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, 2009 (http://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/eAgendaViewRule?pubId=200910&RIN=0910-AG35). Accessed 26 April 2011.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 18
Total number of PDF views: 96 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 471 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.