Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 45
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dash, Sandeep Kumar Kumar, Manoj Kataria, Jag Mohan Nagarajan, Shanmugasundaram Tosh, Chakradhar Murugkar, Harshad V. and Kulkarni, Diwakar D. 2016. Partial heterologous protection by low pathogenic H9N2 virus against natural H9N2-PB1 gene reassortant highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in chickens. Microbial Pathogenesis, Vol. 95, p. 157.

    Todd Weaver, J. Malladi, Sasidhar Bonney, Peter J. Patyk, Kelly A. Bergeron, Justin G. Middleton, Jamie L. Alexander, Catherine Y. Goldsmith, Timothy J. and Halvorson, David A. 2016. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States. Avian Diseases, Vol. 60, Issue. 1s, p. 132.

    Van Campe, Willem Mostin, Laurent Verpoest, Sara Cay, Ann Brigitte De Regge, Nick Welby, Sarah and Favoreel, Herman 2016. Age- and strain-dependent differences in the outcome of experimental infections of domestic pigs with wild boar pseudorabies virus isolates. Journal of General Virology, Vol. 97, Issue. 2, p. 487.

    Backer, J.A. van Roermund, H.J.W. Fischer, E.A.J. van Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. and Bergevoet, R.H.M. 2015. Controlling highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks: An epidemiological and economic model analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 121, Issue. 1-2, p. 142.

    Malladi, Sasidhar Weaver, J. Todd Alexander, Catherine Y. Middleton, Jamie L. Goldsmith, Timothy J. Snider, Timothy Tilley, Becky J. Gonder, Eric Hermes, David R. and Halvorson, David A. 2015. Quantitative Estimation of the Number of Contaminated Hatching Eggs Released from an Infected, Undetected Turkey Breeder Hen Flock During a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak. Avian Diseases, Vol. 59, Issue. 3, p. 355.

    Gonzales, J.L. Boender, G.J. Elbers, A.R.W. Stegeman, J.A. and de Koeijer, A.A. 2014. Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 117, Issue. 1, p. 251.

    Niqueux, Éric Picault, Jean-Paul Amelot, Michel Allée, Chantal Lamandé, Josiane Guillemoto, Carole Pierre, Isabelle Massin, Pascale Blot, Guillaume Briand, François-Xavier Rose, Nicolas and Jestin, Véronique 2014. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 168, Issue. 1, p. 78.

    ARNOLD, M. E. IRVINE, R. M. TEARNE, O. RAE, D. COOK, A. J. C. and BREED, A. C. 2013. Investigation into sampling strategies in response to potential outbreaks of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza initiated in commercial duck holdings in Great Britain. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 141, Issue. 04, p. 751.

    CLAES, G. WELBY, S. VAN DEN BERG, T. VAN DER STEDE, Y. DEWULF, J. LAMBRECHT, B. and MARCHÉ, S. 2013. The impact of viral tropism and housing conditions on the transmission of three H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 141, Issue. 11, p. 2428.

    Dorjee, S. Poljak, Z. Revie, C. W. Bridgland, J. McNab, B. Leger, E. and Sanchez, J. 2013. A Review of Simulation Modelling Approaches Used for the Spread of Zoonotic Influenza Viruses in Animal and Human Populations. Zoonoses and Public Health, Vol. 60, Issue. 6, p. 383.

    Karlsson, Erik A Ciuoderis, Karl Freiden, Pamela J Seufzer, Bradley Jones, Jeremy C Johnson, Jordan Parra, Rocio Gongora, Agustin Cardenas, Dario Barajas, Diana Osorio, Jorge E and Schultz-Cherry, Stacey 2013. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia. Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. e20.

    Nickbakhsh, Sema Matthews, Louise Dent, Jennifer E. Innocent, Giles T. Arnold, Mark E. Reid, Stuart W.J. and Kao, Rowland R. 2013. Implications of within-farm transmission for network dynamics: Consequences for the spread of avian influenza. Epidemics, Vol. 5, Issue. 2, p. 67.

    Patyk, Kelly A. Helm, Julie Martin, Michael K. Forde-Folle, Kimberly N. Olea-Popelka, Francisco J. Hokanson, John E. Fingerlin, Tasha and Reeves, Aaron 2013. An epidemiologic simulation model of the spread and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) among commercial and backyard poultry flocks in South Carolina, United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 110, Issue. 3-4, p. 510.

    De Leo, Giulio Alessandro and Bolzoni, Luca 2012. Getting a free ride on poultry farms: how highly pathogenic avian influenza may persist in spite of its virulence. Theoretical Ecology, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 23.

    Gonzales, J.L. Elbers, A.R.W. Bouma, A. Koch, G. de Wit, J.J. and Stegeman, J.A. 2012. Transmission characteristics of low pathogenic avian influenza virus of H7N7 and H5N7 subtypes in layer chickens. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 155, Issue. 2-4, p. 207.

    Gonzales, J.L. Elbers, A.R.W. van der Goot, J.A. Bontje, D. Koch, G. de Wit, J.J. and Stegeman, J.A. 2012. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 107, Issue. 3-4, p. 253.

    Williams, Paul David 2012. New Insights into Virulence Evolution in Multigroup Hosts. The American Naturalist, Vol. 179, Issue. 2, p. 228.

    Esnault, Evelyne Bonsergent, Claire Larcher, Thibaut Bed’hom, Bertrand Vautherot, Jean-François Delaleu, Bernadette Guigand, Lydie Soubieux, Denis Marc, Daniel and Quéré, Pascale 2011. A novel chicken lung epithelial cell line: Characterization and response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Virus Research, Vol. 159, Issue. 1, p. 32.

    Gonzales, J.L. van der Goot, J.A. Stegeman, J.A. Elbers, A.R.W. and Koch, G. 2011. Transmission between chickens of an H7N1 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus isolated during the epidemic of 1999 in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 152, Issue. 1-2, p. 187.

    Long, Gráinne H. and Boots, Mike 2011. How can immunopathology shape the evolution of parasite virulence?. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 27, Issue. 7, p. 300.


Comparison of the transmission characteristics of low and high pathogenicity avian influenza A virus (H5N2)

  • J. A. VAN DER GOOT (a1), M. C. M. DE JONG (a2), G. KOCH (a1) and M. VAN BOVEN (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2003

Low pathogenicity avian influenza A strains (LPAI) of the H5 and H7 type are noted for their ability to transform into highly pathogenic counterparts (HPAI). Here we compare the transmission characteristics in poultry of LPAI H5N2 (A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83) and corresponding HPAI virus by means of transmission experiments. In the experiments, five inoculated animals are placed in a cage with five contact animals, and the infection chain is monitored by taking blood samples, and samples from the trachea and cloaca. The data are analysed by final size methods and a generalized linear model. The results show that HPAI virus is more infectious and induces a longer infectious period than LPAI. In fact, fully susceptible animals are invariably infected when confronted with HPAI virus and die within six days after infection. Animals previously infected with LPAI virus, on the other hand, survive an infection with HPAI virus or escape infection all together. This implies that a previous infection with LPAI virus effectively reduces susceptibility of the host to infection and decreases transmission of HPAI virus. We discuss the implications of these conclusions for the control and evolution of avian influenza viruses.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *