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    Stecher, Bärbel and Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich 2011. Mechanisms controlling pathogen colonization of the gut. Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 82.

    Chang, D.-E. Smalley, D. J. Tucker, D. L. Leatham, M. P. Norris, W. E. Stevenson, S. J. Anderson, A. B. Grissom, J. E. Laux, D. C. Cohen, P. S. and Conway, T. 2004. Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 101, Issue. 19, p. 7427.

    McFarland, Lynne V. 2000. Normal flora: diversity and functions. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 193.

    Mcburney, W. T. 1999. Perturbation of the enterobacterial microflora detected by molecular analysis. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 175.

    Apperloo-Renkema, H. Z. Bootsma, H. Mulder, B. I. Kallenberg, C. G. and Van Der Waaij, D. 1994. Host–microflora interaction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): colonization resistance of the indigenous bacteria of the intestinal tract. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 112, Issue. 02, p. 367.

    Apperloo-Renkema, H. Z. and Van Der Waaij, D. 1991. Study of colonization resistance for Enterobacteriaceae in man by experimental contamination and biotyping as well as the possible role of antibodies in the clearance of these bacteria from the intestines. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 107, Issue. 03, p. 619.

    Meijer, B. C. Kootstra, G. J. and Wilkinson, M. H. F. 1991. Morphometrical parameters of gut microflora in human volunteers. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 107, Issue. 02, p. 383.


Determination of colonization resistance of the digestive tract by biotyping of Enterobacteriaceae

  • H. Z. Apperloo-Renkema (a1), B. D. Van der Waaij (a1) and D. Van der Waaij (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

In studies concerning the effect of antibiotics on faecal microflora, Colonization Resistance is an important parameter. Colonization Resistance correlates inversely with the number of different biotypes of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from faecal samples. Nine healthy volunteers were studied during 6 weeks, in order to determine the natural variation in the number of different biotypes of Enterobacteriaceae per faecal sample. The numbers of biotypes ranged from 1–15 per faecal sample, the mean number of biotypes varied between 2·6 and 7·3 different biotypes per faecal sample per healthy volunteer. Inter-individual variations of five biotypes in the mean number of biotypes per faecal sample are normal. We assessed the minimal number of faecal samples that should be taken for comprehensive biotyping so as to determine reliably the mean number of different biotypes representative for the Colonization Resistance of an individual. It was found that a minimum of four faecal samples was required.

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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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