Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Distribution of Escherichia coli strains harbouring Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-associated virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) from very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand

  • H. IRSHAD (a1), A. L. COOKSON (a2), D. J. PRATTLEY (a1), M. DUFOUR (a3) and N. P. FRENCH (a1)...
Summary

The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). In total, 299 recto-anal mucosal swabs were collected from animals at two slaughter plants and inoculated onto tryptone bile X-glucuronide and sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Isolates were analysed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes. The most common combination of virulence markers were eae, ehxA (n = 35) followed by eae (n = 9). In total, STEC and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) were isolated from 8/299 (2·6%) and 37/299 (12·3%) calves, respectively. All the isolates could be assigned to 15 genotype clusters with >70% similarity cut-off using XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. It may be concluded that healthy calves from the dairy industry are asymptomatic carriers of a diverse population of STEC and aEPEC in New Zealand.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Distribution of Escherichia coli strains harbouring Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-associated virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) from very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Distribution of Escherichia coli strains harbouring Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-associated virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) from very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Distribution of Escherichia coli strains harbouring Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-associated virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) from very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence: Dr H. Irshad, mEpiLab, Hopkirk Research Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. (Email: h.irshad@massey.ac.nz)
References
Hide All
1. Bettelheim, KA. The non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic (Verocytotoxigenic) Escherichia coli; under-rated pathogens. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 2007; 33: 6787.
2. Swerdlow, DL, et al. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhoea and death. Annals of Internal Medicine 1992; 117: 812819.
3. Caprioli, A, et al. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: emerging issues on virulence and modes of transmission. Veterinary Research 2005; 36: 289311.
4. Brooks, JT, et al. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983–2002. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 192: 14221429.
5. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Raw beef product sampling: United States Department of Agriculture, 2013 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/50c9fb74-c0db-48cd-a682-b399ed6b70c0/29_IM_Raw_Beef_Prod_Sampling.pdf?MOD=AJPERES).
6. Louise, CB, Obrig, TG. Specific interaction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived Shiga like toxin II with human renal endothelial cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995; 172: 13971401.
7. Gyles, CL. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. Journal of Animal Science 2007; 85: E45E62.
8. Paton, AW, et al. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from cases of human disease show enhanced adherence to intestinal epithelial (Henle 407) cells. Infection and Immunity 1997; 65: 37993805.
9. Jerse, AE, et al. A genetic-locus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli necessary for the production of attaching and effacing lesions on tissue-culture cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1990; 87: 78397843.
10. Moon, HW, et al. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines. Infection and Immunity 1983; 41: 13401351.
11. Beutin, L, et al. Close association of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin) production with enterohaemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli . Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1989; 27: 25592564.
12. Taneike, I, et al. Enterohaemolysin operon of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: a virulence function of inflammatory cytokine production from human monocytes. FEBS Letters 2002; 524: 219224.
13. Cookson, AL, et al. Serotypes and analysis of distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from cattle and sheep in the lower North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2006; 54: 7884.
14. Kaper, JB. Defining EPEC. Revista de Microbiologia 1996; 27: 130133.
15. Trabulsi, LR, Keller, R, Gomes, TAT. Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 508513.
16. Wilson, MW, Bettelheim, KA. Cytotoxic Escherichia coli serotypes. Lancet 1980; 1: 201.
17. Environmental Science and Research. Notifiable and other diseases in New Zealand –2011 annual surveillance report, Wellington, 2011 (http://surv.esr.cri.nz/PDF_surveillance/ERL/VTEC/VTEC_2011.pdf).
18. Thorbun, D, Ruminant density, verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli and cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand: descriptive and ecological analyses (thesis). Dunedin: University of Otago, 2010.
19. French, N, et al. New tools improve our understanding of the epidemiology of food borne pathogens and inform food safety control policies. Proceedings of the Food Safety, Animal Welfare & Biosecurity Branch of the NZVA. Hamilton, New Zealand: VetLearn Foundation, 2011.
20. Cavanagh, PD. Exports. In: Cavanagh, PD, ed. New Zealand Official Yearbook. Auckland, New Zealand: Statistics New Zealand, Te Tari Tatau, David Bateman Limited, 2003, pp. 533537.
21. Irshad, H, et al. Epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2012; 60: 2126.
22. Paton, AW, Paton, JC. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111, and rfbO157. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1998; 36: 598602.
23. Yokoigawa, K, et al. Primers for amplifying an alanine racemase gene fragment to detect E. coli strains in foods. Journal of Food Science 1999; 64: 571575.
24. Perelle, S, et al. Detection by 5′-nuclease PCR of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O55, O91, O103, O111, O113, O145 and O157 : H7, associated with the world's most frequent clinical cases. Molecular and Cellular Probes 2004; 18: 185192.
25. Fratamico, PM, et al. DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O103 O antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O103 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 2005; 51: 515522.
26. Fratamico, PM, et al. PCR detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 in food by targeting genes in the E. coli O145 O-antigen gene cluster and the Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 genes. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2009; 6: 605611.
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One-day (24–28 h) standardised laboratory protocol for molecular subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella serotypes, and Shigella sonnei by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/PDF/ecoli-shigella-salmonella-pfge-protocol-508c.pdf), 2009.
28. Sanson, R, Pearson, A. AgriBase – a national spatial farm database. Epidemiologie et Santé Animale 1997; 31–32: 13.
29. Cookson, AL, Taylor, SCS, Attwood, GT. The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and sheep in the lower North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2006; 54: 2833.
30. Orden, JA, et al. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) isolated from healthy cattle in Spain. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2002; 93: 2935.
31. Orden, JA, et al. Typing of the eae and espB genes of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates from ruminants. Veterinary Microbiology 2003; 96: 203215.
32. Frank, C, et al. Epidemic profile of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany – preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365: 17711780.
33. Boerlin, P, et al. Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1999; 37: 497503.
34. Pradel, N, et al. Molecular analysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients and dairy samples in France. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008; 74: 21182128.
35. Hiruta, N, Murase, T, Okamura, N. An outbreak of diarrhoea due to multiple antimicrobial-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 in a nursery. Epidemiology and Infection 2001; 127: 221227.
36. Tozzi, AE, et al. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, Italy, 1988–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 106108.
37. Baker, M, et al. Emergence of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Environmental Science and Research, 1999 (New Zealand Public Health Report).
38. Zhang, WL, et al. Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 38: 21342140.
39. Bielaszewska, M, et al. Shiga toxin-negative attaching and effacing Escherichia coli: distinct clinical associations with bacterial phylogeny and virulence traits and inferred in-host pathogen evolution. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008; 47: 208217.
40. Hernandes, RT, et al. An overview of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . FEMS Microbiology Letters 2009; 297: 137149.
41. Whittam, TS, et al. Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains that cause haemorrhagic colitis and infantile diarrhoea. Infection and Immunity 1993; 61: 16191629.
42. Schmidt, H, Beutin, L, Karch, H. Molecular analysis of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL-933. Infection and Immunity 1995; 63: 10551061.
43. Gyles, C, et al. Association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin with serotypes of Shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli of human and bovine origins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1998; 64: 41344141.
44. dos Santos, LF, et al. Set of virulence genes and genetic relatedness of O113:H21 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the animal reservoir and human infections in Brazil. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2010; 59: 634640.
45. Beutin, L, Martin, A. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infection in Germany causes a paradigm shift with regard to human pathogenicity of STEC strains. Journal of Food Protection 2012; 75: 408418.
46. Bugarel, M, et al. Identification of genetic markers for differentiation of Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic, and avirulent strains of Escherichia coli O26. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2011; 77: 22752281.
47. Fukushima, H, Hoshina, K, Gomyoda, M. Selective isolation of eae-positive strains of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2000; 38: 16841687.
48. D'Costa, D, et al. Prevalence, serogroups, Shiga-toxin genes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine milk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of India, Section B: Biological Sciences 2013; 83: 423429.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed