Lund, Barbara M. and Peck, Michael W. 2015. A Possible Route for Foodborne Transmission ofClostridium difficile?. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 177.
Bauer, Martijn P. and Kuijper, Ed J. 2015. Potential Sources of Clostridium difficile in Human Infection. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 29.
Kotila, Saara M. Mentula, Silja Ollgren, Jukka Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni and Lyytikäinen, Outi 2016. Community- and Healthcare-AssociatedClostridium difficileInfections, Finland, 2008−20131. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 1747.
Faleck, David M Salmasian, Hojjat Furuya, E Yoko Larson, Elaine L Abrams, Julian A and Freedberg, Daniel E 2016. Proton Pump Inhibitors Do Not Increase Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection in the Intensive Care Unit. The American Journal of Gastroenterology,
Drigo, Ilenia Mazzolini, Elena Bacchin, Cosetta Tonon, Elena Puiatti, Cinzia Bano, Luca Spigaglia, Patrizia Barbanti, Fabrizio and Agnoletti, Fabrizio 2015. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from rabbits raised for meat production. Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 181, Issue. 3-4, p. 303.
Röser, D. Simonsen, J. Nielsen, H. V. Stensvold, C. R. and Mølbak, K. 2015. History of antimicrobial use and the risk of Dientamoeba fragilis infection. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 34, Issue. 6, p. 1145.
Permpalung, Nitipong Upala, Sikarin Sanguankeo, Anawin and Sornprom, Suthanya 2016. Association between NSAIDs andClostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 2016, p. 1.
Spina, A. Kerr, K.G. Cormican, M. Barbut, F. Eigentler, A. Zerva, L. Tassios, P. Popescu, G.A. Rafila, A. Eerola, E. Batista, J. Maass, M. Aschbacher, R. Olsen, K.E.P. and Allerberger, F. 2015. Spectrum of enteropathogens detected by the FilmArray GI Panel in a multicentre study of community-acquired gastroenteritis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 21, Issue. 8, p. 719.
Søes, L. M. Holt, H. M. Böttiger, B. Nielsen, H. V. Torpdahl, M. Nielsen, E. M. Ethelberg, S. Mølbak, K. Andreasen, V. Kemp, M. and Olsen, K. E. P. 2014. The incidence and clinical symptomatology of Clostridium difficile infections in a community setting in a cohort of Danish patients attending general practice. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 33, Issue. 6, p. 957.
Bloomfield, Lauren E. and Riley, Thomas V. 2016. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Narrative Review. Infectious Diseases and Therapy, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 231.
To identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Danish patients consulting general practice with gastrointestinal symptoms, a prospective matched case-control study was performed; cases (N = 259) had positive cultures for toxigenic C. difficile and controls (N = 455) negative cultures. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression. In patients aged ⩾2 years (138 cases), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 8·4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·1–23], consumption of beef (OR 5·5, 95% CI 2·0–15), phenoxymethylpenicillin (OR 15, 95% CI 2·7–82), dicloxacillin (OR 27, 95% CI 3·6–211), and extended spectrum penicillins (OR 9·2, 95% CI 1·9–45) were associated with CDI. In patients aged <2 years none of these were associated with CDI, but in a subgroup analysis contact with animals was associated with CDI (OR 8·1, 95% CI 1·0–64). This study emphasizes narrow-spectrum penicillins, and suggests beef consumption, as risk factors for CDI in adults, and indicates a different epidemiology of CDI in infants.
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