Bettelheim KA. The non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic (Verocytotoxigenic) Escherichia coli; under-rated pathogens. Critical Reviews in Microbiology
2007; 33: 67–87.
Karmali MA, Gannon V, Sargeant JM. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Veterinary Microbiology
2010; 140: 360–370.
Mainil JG, Daube G. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from animals, humans and foods: who's who?
Journal of Applied Microbiology
2005; 98: 1332–1344.
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards. Scientific opinion on VTEC-seropathotype and scientific criteria regarding pathogenicity assessment. European Food Safety Authority Journal
2013; 11: 3138.
Conrad CC, et al.
Further development of sample preparation and detection methods for O157 and the top 6 non-O157 STEC serogroups in cattle feces. Journal of Microbiological Methods
2014; 105: 22–30.
Hancock DD, et al.
Multiple sources of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlots and dairy farms in the northwestern USA. Preventive Veterinary Medicine
1998; 35: 11–19.
Luna-Gierke RE, et al.
Multiple-aetiology enteric infections involving non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-FoodNet, 2001–2010. Zoonoses Public Health
2014; 61: 492–498.
Buncic S, Avery SM.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in healthy dairy cows. New Zealand Veterinary Journal
1997; 45: 45–48.
Cookson AL, Taylor SCS, Attwood GT. The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and sheep in the lower North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal
2006; 54: 28–33.
Cookson AL, et al.
Serotypes and analysis of distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from cattle and sheep in the lower North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal
2006; 54: 78–84.
Jaros P, et al.
A prospective case–control and molecular epidemiological study of human cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in New Zealand. BMC Infectious Diseases
2013; 13: 1450.
Jaros P, et al.
Nationwide prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in very young calves and adult cattle at slaughter in New Zealand. Epidemiology and Infection
2016; 144: 1736–1747.
Food Safety and Inspection Service. Product subject to non-O157 STEC testing. Technical Report USDA, 2011.
Ministry of Primary Industries. Situation and outlook for Primary Industries 2015 (https://www.mpi.govt.nz). 2015. Accessed 18 May 2016.
Irshad H, et al.
Epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in very young calves in the North Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal
2012; 60: 21–26.
Perelle S, et al.
Detection by 5 ‘-nuclease PCR of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O55, O91, O103, O111, O113, O145 and O157 : H7, associated with the world's most frequent clinical cases. Molecular and Cellular Probes
2004; 18: 185–192.
Fratamico PM, et al.
DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O103 O antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O103 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology
2005; 51: 515–522.
Fratamico PM, et al.
PCR detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 in food by targeting genes in the E. coli O145 O-antigen gene cluster and the Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 genes. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
2009; 6: 605–611.
Irshad H, et al.
Diversity and relatedness of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni between farms in a dairy catchment. Epidemiology and Infection
2016; 144: 1406–1417.
Paton AW, Paton JC. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA, Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111, and rfbO157. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
1998; 36: 598–602.
Sharma VK, Dean-Nystrom EA. Detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for genes encoding intimin and Shiga toxins. Veterinary Microbiology
2003; 93: 247–260.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One-day (24–28 h) standardised laboratory protocol for molecular subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella serotypes, and Shigella sonnei by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/protocols.htm). 2009. Accessed 20 January 2011.
Sanson R, Pearson A. AgriBase – a national spatial farm database. Epidemiologie et Sante Animale
1997; 31: 1–3.
Ripley BD. The second-order analysis of stationary point processes. Journal of Applied Probability
1976; 13: 255–266.
Bailey TC, Gatrell AC. Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Longman, Harlow: United Kingdom, 1995.
Sharma VK. Detection and quantitation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, O111, and O26 in beef and bovine feces by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Food Protection
2002; 65: 1371–1380.
Pearce MC, et al.
Prevalence and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 shed by cattle in Scotland. Appliedand Environmental Microbiology
2006; 72(1): 653–659.
O'Reilly KM, et al.
Associations between the presence of virulence determinants and the epidemiology and ecology of zoonotic Escherichia coli
. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2010; 76: 8110–8116.
Pearce MC, et al.
Temporal shedding patterns and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157 in a cohort of beef calves and their dams. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2004; 70: 1708–1716.
Schmidt H, et al.
Non-O157:H7 pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: phenotypic and genetic profiling of virulence traits and evidence for clonality. Journal of Infectious Diseases
1999; 179: 115–123.
Zhang WL, et al.
Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2000; 38: 2134–2140.
Bielaszewska M, et al.
Shiga toxin-negative attaching and effacing Escherichia coli: distinct clinical associations with bacterial phylogeny and virulence traits and inferred in-host pathogen evolution. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2008; 47: 208–217.
Hernandes RT, et al.
An overview of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
. FEMS Microbiology Letters
2009; 297: 137–149.
Norman KN, et al.
Association of nucleotide polymorphisms within the O-antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 with serogroups and genetic subtypes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2012; 78: 6689–6703.
Cookson AL, et al.
Intimin subtyping of Escherichia coli: concomitant carriage of multiple intimin subtypes from forage-fed cattle and sheep. FEMS Microbiology Letters
2007; 272: 163–171. doi: 10.1111/j.1574–6968.2007.00755.x.
Hofer E, et al.
Application of a Real-Time PCR-based system for monitoring of O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle at slaughter. Zoonoses and Public Health
2012; 59: 408–415.
Brooks JT, et al.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983–2002. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2005; 192: 1422–1429.
Vally H, et al.
Epidemiology of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in Australia, 2000–2010. Bio Med Central Public Health
2012; 63: 1–12.
Crump JA, Murdoch DR, Baker MG. Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2001; 7: 767–772.
Benschop J, et al.
Informing surveillance programmes by investigating spatial dependency of subclinical Salmonella infection. Epidemiology and Infection
2009; 137: 1348–1359.
Fenton SE, et al.
Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella infection in dairy herds in England and Wales. Epidemiology and Infection
2009; 137: 847–857.
Bretschneider G, Berberov EM, Moxley RA. Reduced intestinal colonization of adult beef cattle by Escherichia coli O157: H7 tir deletion and nalidixic-acid-resistant mutants lacking flagellar expression. Veterinary Microbiology
2007; 125: 381–386.
Dziva F, et al.
Vaccination of calves with EspA, a key colonisation factor of Escherichia coli O157:H7, induces antigen-specific humoral responses but does not confer protection against intestinal colonisation. Veterinary Microbiology
2007; 123: 254–261.
van Diemen PM, et al.
Subunit vaccines based on intimin and Efa-1 polypeptides induce humoral immunity in cattle but do not protect against intestinal colonisation by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 or O26:H. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
2007; 116: 47–58.
Potter AA, et al.
Decreased shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle following vaccination with type III secreted proteins. Vaccine
2004; 22: 362–369.
Rugbjerg H, Nielsen EM, Andersen JS. Risk factors associated with faecal shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in eight known-infected Danish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine
2003; 58: 101–113.
Widiasih DA, et al.
Duration and magnitude of faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from naturally infected cattle. Epidemiology and Infection
2004; 132: 67–75.
Riley DG, et al.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence in fecal samples of cattle from a south-eastern beef cow-calf herd. Journal of Food Protection
2003; 66: 1778–1782.
Shinagawa K, et al.
Frequency of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle at a breeding farm and at a slaughterhouse in Japan. Veterinary Microbiology
2000; 76: 305–309.