1.Edmond, K, et al. Global and regional risk of disabling sequelae from bacterial meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2010; 10: 317–328.
2.Peltola, H, Kataja, JM, Makela, PH. Shift in the age-distribution of meningococcal disease as predictor of an epidemic? Lancet 1982; 2: 595–597.
3.Boisier, P, et al. Meningococcal meningitis: unprecedented incidence of serogroup X-related cases in 2006 in Niger. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 44: 657–663.
4.Leimkugel, J, Racloz, V. Global review of meningococcal disease. A shifting etiology. Journal of Bacteriology Research 2009; 1: 6–18.
5.Harrison, LH, Trotter, CL, Ramsay, ME. Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease. Vaccine 2009; 27 (Suppl. 2): B51–B63.
6.Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to vaccinate all persons aged 11–18 years with meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2007; 56: 794–795.
7.Granoff, DM, Pollard, AJ. Reconsideration of the use of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2007; 26: 716–722.
8.Maiden, MC, et al. Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunity. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197: 737–743.
9.Trotter, CL, Maiden, MC. Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs. Expert Review of Vaccines 2009; 8: 851–861.
10.Trotter, CL, Edmunds, WJ. Reassessing the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines using a transmission dynamic model. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2006; 26: 38–47.
11.Pace, D. Quadrivalent meningococcal ACYW-135 glycoconjugate vaccine for broader protection from infancy. Expert Review of Vaccines 2009; 8: 529–542.
12.Finne, J, Leinonen, M, Makela, PH. Antigenic similarities between brain components and bacteria causing meningitis. Implications for vaccine development and pathogenesis. Lancet 1983; 2: 355–357.
13.Tan, LKK, Carlone, GM, Borrow, R. Advances in the development of vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis. New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 362: 1511–1520.
14.Cruz, C, et al. Serotype-specific outbreak of group B meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile. Epidemiology and Infection 1990; 105: 119–126.
15.Puricelli, RC, Kupek, E, Westrupp, MH. Three decades of meningococcal disease in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004; 8: 241–248.
16.Dominguez, F, Menendez, J, Ochoa, R. An effective serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. Vaccine 2006; 24: 7025–7026.
17.de Moraes, JC, et al. Protective efficacy of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lancet 1992; 340: 1074–1078.
18.Noronha, CP, Struchiner, J, Halloran, ME. Assessment of the direct effectiveness of BC meningococcal vaccine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: A case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 24: 1050–1057.
19.Pirez, MC, et al. Control of an outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease. Revista Medica del Uruguay 2004; 20: 92–101.
20.Jodar, L, et al. Development of vaccines against meningococcal disease. Lancet 2002; 359: 1499–1508.
21.Safadi, MAP, Cintra, OAL. Epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America: Current situation and opportunities for prevention. Neurological Research 2010; 32: 263–271.
22.Halperin, SA, et al. The changing and dynamic epidemiology of meningococcal disease. Vaccine 2012; 30(Suppl. 2): B26–B36.
23.Almeida-Gonzalez, L, et al. Meningococcal disease: epidemiological, clinical and preventive perspectives. Salud Publica de México 2004; 46: 438–450.
24.Barata, RC. Epidemiology of meningococcal disease, 1970/1977. Onset and dissemination of the epidemic process. Revista de Saude Publica 1988; 22: 16–24.
25.de Moraes, JC, Barata, RB. Meningococcal disease in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the 20th century: epidemiological characteristics. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2005; 21: 1458–1471.
27.Chacon-Cruz, E, et al. Surveillance for invasive meningococcal disease in children, US-Mexico border, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011; 17: 543–546.
28.Pan American Health Organization. Regional system for vaccines SIREVA II: data by country and age groups on characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive diseases, 2000–2005.
29.Pan American Health Organization. Meningococcal disease outbreak in Osorno, Chile. Epidemiological Bulletin 1980; 1: 9–10.
30.Caugant, DA, Froholm, LO, Bovre, K. Intercontinental spread of a genetically distinctivecomplex of clones of Neisseria meningitidis causing epidemic disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1986; 83: 4927–4931.
31.Motas, IM, et al. Characterization of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers in Cuba during 20 years. Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical 2006; 58: 124–133.
32.Sosa, J, et al. Typing and susceptibility to penicillin of Neisseria meningitidis isolated from patients in Cuba (1993–1999). Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 2001; 96: 523–525.
33.Sacchi, CT, et al. Ongoing group B Neisseria meningitidis epidemic in Sao Paulo, Brazil, due to increased prevalence of a single clone of the ET-5 complex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992; 30: 1734–1738.
34.Barroso, DE, et al. The effect of subcapsular meningococcal B + C vaccine on the prognosis of patients with meningococcal disease. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 417–420.
35.Lemos, AP, et al. Phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2001. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 55: 751–757.
36.Rodriguez, AP, et al. The epidemiological impact of antimeningococcal B vaccination in Cuba. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 1999; 94: 433–440.
37.Milagres, LG, et al. Immune response of Brazilian children to a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane protein vaccine: Comparison with efficacy. Infection and Immunity 1994; 62: 4419–4424.
38.Galeano, A, Echeverry, ML. Effectiveness of a meningococcal vaccine in Itagui, Colombia. Boletim Epidemiológico de Antioquia 1995; 2: 20.
39.Agudelo, CI, Sanabria, OM, Ovalle, MV. Serogroup Y meningococcal disease, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 990–991.
40.Castillo, L, et al. Characteriztion of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive infections. Chile, 1992–1993. Revista Médica de Chile 1994; 122: 760–767.
41.Pirez, MC, et al. Invasive meningococcal disease in Uruguay. Revista Médica del Uruguay 2002; 18: 83–88.
42.Pan American Health Organization. Regional system for vaccines SIREVA II: data by country and age groups on characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive diseases, 2006. 2006.
43.Pan American Health Organization. Regional system for vaccines SIREVA II: data by country and age groups on characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive diseases, 2007. 2007.
44.Pan American Health Organization. Regional system for vaccines SIREVA II: data by country and age groups on characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive diseases, 2008. 2008.
45.Feldman, RA, et al. Meningococcal meningitis in Costa Rica, 1970–1973. Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México 1979; 36: 279–286.
46.de Morais, J, et al. Epidemic disease due to serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1974; 129: 568–571.
47.Sacchi, CT, et al. Characterization of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in several Brazilian states. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1994; 32: 1783–1787.
48.Lemos, APS, et al. Clonal distribution of invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains circulating from 1976 to 2005 in greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2007; 45: 1266–1273.
49.Barroso, D, et al. Epidemiology and molecular analysis of epidemic meningococcal disease related to group C Neisseria meningitidis in a Brazilian metropolis. 1996. Tenth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, 8–13 September 1996, Abstract 150 (http://neisseria.org/ipnc/1996/Neis1996-chap7.pdf). Accessed 3 March 2011.
51.Chiavetta, L, et al. Neisseria meningitidis surveillance in Argentina, 1993–2005: distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes causing invasive disease. Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 2007; 39: 21–27.
53.Pan American Health Organization. Regional system for vaccines SIREVA II: data by country and age groups on characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis isolates from invasive diseases, 2009. 2009.
54.Barroso, DE, Rebelo, MC. Recognition of the epidemiological significance of Neisseria meningitidis capsular serogroup W135 in the Rio de Janeiro region, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 2007; 102: 773–775.
55.Weidlich, L, et al. High prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis hypervirulent lineages and emergence of W135:P1.5,2:ST-11 clone in Southern Brazil. Journal of Infection 2008; 57: 324–331.
56.von Gottberg, A, et al. Emergence of endemic serogroup W135 meningococcal disease associated with a high mortality rate in South Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008; 46: 377–386.
57.Abad, R, et al. Molecular characterization of invasive serogroup Y Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated in the Latin America region. Journal of Infection 2009; 59: 104–114.
60.Nieto-Guevara, J, et al. Epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the Panamanian pediatric population, 1998–2008. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 2011; 5: 318–323.
61.Pan American Health Organization. Current situation of meningococcal disease surveillance in the Americas region. Washington, DC; 2007. Report No.: CDCPAHO/Dpc/Cd/A/482.
63.Castellano Gonzalez M. Nasopharyngeal carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria in toddlers from Maracaibo (2000–2001). Kasmera 2002; 30: 17–32.
64.de los Monteros, LE, et al. Prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriers in children under five years of age and teenagers in certain populations of Mexico City. Salud Pública de México 2009; 51: 114–118.
65.Soriano-Gabarro, M, et al. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in Europe: a review of studies undertaken in the region. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 2011; 9: 761–774.
66.Christensen, H, et al. Meningococcal carriage by age: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2010; 10: 853–861.
67.Franco-Paredes, C, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of bacterial meningitis in Mexican children: 10-year experience (1993–2003). International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 12: 380–386.
68.Almeida-Gonzalez, L, et al. Meningococcal disease: epidemiological, clinical, and preventive perspectives. Salud Publica de México 2004; 46: 438–450.
69.Dickinson, FO, Perez, AE. Bacterial meningitis in children and adolescents: an observational study based on the national surveillance system. BMC Infectious Diseases 2005; 5: 103.
71.Santos, ML, Ruffino-Netto, A. Meningococcal disease: epidemiological profile in the Municipality of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 1998/2002. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2005; 21: 823–829.
72.Cordeiro, SM, et al. Hospital-based surveillance of meningococcal meningitis in Salvador, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2007; 101: 1147–1153.
73.Baethgen, LF, et al. Epidemiology of meningococcal disease in southern Brazil from 1995 to 2003, and molecular characterization of Neisseria meningitidis using multilocus sequence typing. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2008; 13: 31–40.
74.Costa, EDA, Martins, H, Klein, CH. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of an antimeningococcal vaccine for serogroups B and C Neisseria meningitidis infections in Brazil, 1990/92. Revista de Saude Publica 1996; 30: 460–470.
75.Bastos, CO, et al. Meningitis. Considerations on 15067 cases confined at the ‘Emilio Ribas’ Hospital during the 1958–1972 period. Revista da Associação Medica Brasileira 1973; 19: 451–456.
76.Donalisio, MR, et al. Fatality rate in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease: study in the region of Campinas, SP, Brazil, 1993 to 1998. Revista de Saude Publica 2000; 34: 589–595.
77.Gama, SG, Marzochi, KB, da Siveira Filho, GB. Epidemiological characterization of meningococcal disease in a metropolitan area in Southeastern Brazil, 1976–1994. Revista de Saude Publica 1997; 31: 254–262.
78.Espinal, CA, Espinosa, G, Upegui, G. Epidemiology of meningococcal Disease in Colombia. Infectio 1999; 3: 74–87.
79.Pereira, CS, Reguera, M, Mollerach, M. PorA types in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B isolated in Argentina from 2001 to 2003: implications for the design of an outer membraneprotein-based vaccine. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2008; 57: 338–342.
81.Tappero, JW, et al. Immunogenicity of 2 serogroup B outer-membrane protein meningococcal vaccines: A randomized controlled trial in Chile. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 281: 1520–1527.