Glass RI, Parashar UD, Estes MK. Norovirus gastroenteritis. New England Journal of Medicine
2009; 361: 1776–1785.
Patel MM, et al.
Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2008; 14: 1224–31.
Harris JP, et al.
Deaths from norovirus among the elderly, England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2008; 14: 1546–1552.
Roddie C, et al.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and norovirus gastroenteritis: a previously unrecognized cause of morbidity. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2009; 49: 1061–1068.
Matthews JE, et al.
The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup. Epidemiology and Infection
2012; 140: 1161–1172.
Zheng DP, et al.
Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology
2006; 346: 312–23.
Siebenga JJ, et al.
Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001–2007. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2009; 200: 802–812.
Bok K, et al.
Evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 noroviruses over a 34-year period. Journal of Virology
2009; 83: 11890–901.
Robert Koch Institute. Case definitions of the RKI for transmission of illnesses or deaths and of detection of infectious disease pathogens [in German]. Berlin (Germany): Robert Koch Institute, 2007.
Vinje J, Hamidjaja RA, Sobsey MD. Development and application of a capsid VP1 (region D) based reverse transcription PCR assay for genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. Journal of Virological Methods
2004; 116: 109–117.
Hoehne M, Schreier E. Detection of Norovirus genogroup I and II by multiplex real-time RT-PCR using a 3′-minor groove binder-DNA probe. BMC Infectious Diseases
2006; 6: 69.
Oh DY, Gaedicke G, Schreier E. Viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in German children: prevalence and molecular diversity. Journal of Medical Virology
2003; 71: 82–93.
Felsenstein J. PHYLIP – Phylogeny interference package (Version 3.2). Cladistics
1989; 5: 164–166.
Siebenga JJ, et al.
Gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GGII.4, The Netherlands, 1994–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2007; 13: 144–146.
Wall PG, et al.
Food poisoning: notifications, laboratory reports, and outbreaks – where do the statistics come from and what do they mean?
Communicable Disease Report. CDR Review
1996; 6: R93–100.
Hall AJ, et al.
Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2011; 17: 1381–1388.
Phillips G, et al.
Community incidence of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in England: improved estimates using viral load for norovirus diagnosis. American Journal of Epidemiology
2010; 171: 1014–1022.
Tam CC, et al.
Longitudinal study of infectious intestinal disease in the UK (IID2 study): incidence in the community and presenting to general practice. Gut
2012; 61: 69–77.
Verhoef L, et al. The estimated disease burden of norovirus in The Netherlands. Epidemiology and Infection. Published online:
Desai R, et al. Severe outcomes are associated with genogroup 2 genotype 4 norovirus outbreaks: a systematic literature review. Clinical Infectious Diseases
Scallan E, et al.
Foodborne illness acquired in the United States – major pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2011; 17: 7–15.
Kirk MD, et al.
Surveillance for outbreaks of gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities, Australia, 2002–2008. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2010; 51: 907–914.
Hall AJ, et al.
The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999–2007. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2012; 55: 216–223.
van Asten L, et al.
Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics. Epidemiology
2011; 22: 336–343.
Werber D, et al. Years of potential life lost for six major enteric pathogens, Germany, 2004–2008. Epidemiology and Infection. Published online:
Lopman B, et al.
Increase in viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe and epidemic spread of new norovirus variant. Lancet
2004; 363: 682–688.
Huhti L, et al.
Norovirus GII-4 causes a more severe gastroenteritis than other noroviruses in young children. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2011; 203: 1442–1444.
Chan MC, et al.
Fecal viral load and norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2006; 12: 1278–1280.
Gotz H, et al.
Clinical spectrum and transmission characteristics of infection with Norwalk-like virus: findings from a large community outbreak in Sweden. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2001; 33: 622–628.
Rockx B, et al.
Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2002; 35: 246–253.
Arias C, et al.
Epidemiological and clinical features of norovirus gastroenteritis in outbreaks: a population-based study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection
2010; 16: 39–44.
Sukhrie FH, et al.
Nosocomial transmission of norovirus is mainly caused by symptomatic cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2012; 54: 931–937.
Bon F, et al.
Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses detected in sporadic and outbreak cases of gastroenteritis in France from December 1998 to February 2004. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
2005; 43: 4659–4664.
Lopman BA, et al.
Two epidemiologic patterns of norovirus outbreaks: surveillance in England and wales, 1992–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases
2003; 9: 71–77.
Blanton LH, et al.
Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000–2004. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2006; 193: 413–421.
Hauri AM, et al.
Electronic outbreak surveillance in Germany: a first evaluation for nosocomial norovirus outbreaks. PLoS One
2011; 6: e17341.