Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup

  • J. E. MATTHEWS (a1), B. W. DICKEY (a1), R. D. MILLER (a1), J. R. FELZER (a1), B. P. DAWSON (a1), A. S. LEE (a1), J. J. ROCKS (a1), J. KIEL (a1), J. S. MONTES (a1), C. L. MOE (a1), J. N. S. EISENBERG (a2) and J. S. LEON (a1)...
Summary
SUMMARY

The purpose of this study was to examine global epidemiological trends in human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks by transmission route and setting, and describe relationships between these characteristics, viral attack rates, and the occurrence of genogroup I (GI) or genogroup II (GII) strains in outbreaks. We analysed data from 902 reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, human NoV outbreaks abstracted from a systematic review of articles published from 1993 to 2011 and indexed under the terms ‘norovirus’ and ‘outbreak’. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that foodservice and winter outbreaks were significantly associated with higher attack rates. Foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were associated with multiple strains (GI+GII). Waterborne outbreaks were significantly associated with GI strains, while healthcare-related and winter outbreaks were associated with GII strains. These results identify important trends for epidemic NoV detection, prevention, and control.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: J. S. Leon, Emory University, Hubert Department of Global Health, Mailstop 1518-002-7BB, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. (Email: juan.leon@emory.edu)
References
Hide All
1.Patel MM, et al. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 12241231.
2.Kaplan JE, et al. The frequency of a Norwalk-like pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. American Journal of Public Health 1982; 72: 13291332.
3.Teunis PF, et al. Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? Journal of Medical Virology 2008; 80: 14681476.
4.Leon J, Moe CL. Role of viruses in foodborne disease. In: Potter M, ed. Food Consumption and Disease Risk: Consumer–Pathogen Interactions. Baltimore: Woodhead Publishing in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 2006.
5.Leon JS, et al. Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial for human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2011; 77: 54765482.
6.Zheng DP, et al. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 2006; 346: 312323.
7.Lopman BA, et al. Two epidemiologic patterns of norovirus outbreaks: surveillance in England and Wales, 1992–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 7177.
8.Verhoef LP, et al. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 3138.
9.Fankhauser RL, et al. Epidemiologic and molecular trends of ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 186: 17.
10.Fankhauser RL, et al. Molecular epidemiology of ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998; 178: 15711578.
11.Blanton LH, et al. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000–2004. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006; 193: 413421.
12.Tseng FC, et al. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in North Carolina, United States: 1995–2000. Journal of Medical Virology 2007; 79: 8491.
13.Widdowson MA, et al. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and on land: identification of a predominant circulating strain of norovirus – United States, 2002. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004; 190: 2736.
14.Kaplan JE, et al. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1982; 96: 756761.
15.Bon F, et al. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses detected in sporadic and outbreak cases of gastroenteritis in France from December 1998 to February 2004. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 46594664.
16.Fretz R, et al. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to infections with Norovirus in Switzerland, 2001–2003. Epidemiology and Infection 2005; 133: 429437.
17.Noda M, Fukuda S, Nishio O. Statistical analysis of attack rate in norovirus foodborne outbreaks. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2008; 122: 216220.
18.Elliott AC, Hynan LS. A SAS® macro implementation of a multiple comparison post hoc test for a Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 2011; 102: 7580.
19.Elliott AC, Reisch JS. Implementing a multiple comparison test for proportions in a 2xC crosstabulation in SAS. In: Proceedings of the SAS User's Group International. San Francisco: SAS Global Users Group, 2006, pp. 204231.
20.Davis CE, et al. An example of dependencies among variables in a conditional logistic regression. In: Moolgavkar S, Prentice R, eds. Modern Statistical Methods in Chronic Disease Epidemiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1986, pp. 140147.
21.Heinze G, Schemper M. A solution to the problem of separation in logistic regression. Statistics in Medicine 2002; 21: 24092419.
22.Scallan E. Activities, achievements, and lessons learned during the first 10 years of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network: 1996–2005. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 44: 718725.
23.Kirk MD, et al. Food safety: foodborne disease in Australia: the OzFoodNet experience. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008; 47: 392400.
24.Yoder JS, et al. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with recreational water – United States, 2001–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries 2004; 53: 122.
25.Johnston CP, et al. Outbreak management and implications of a nosocomial norovirus outbreak. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 45: 534540.
26.Zingg W, et al. Impact of an outbreak of norovirus infection on hospital resources. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2005; 26: 263267.
27.Kroneman A, et al. Analysis of integrated virological and epidemiological reports of norovirus outbreaks collected within the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network from 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2006. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 29592965.
28.Gallimore CI, et al. Inter-seasonal diversity of norovirus genotypes: emergence and selection of virus variants. Archives of Virology 2007; 152: 12951303.
29.Lindesmith LC, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. Norovirus GII.4 strain antigenic variation. Journal of Virology 2011; 85: 231242.
30.Chan MC, et al. Fecal viral load and norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 12781280.
31.Lee N, et al. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 13991401.
32.Lysen M, et al. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 24112418.
33.Liu P, et al. Persistence of human noroviruses on food preparation surfaces and human hands. Food and Environmental Virology 2009; 1: 141147.
34.Seitz SR, et al. Norovirus human infectivity and persistence in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Published online: 19 August 2011. doi:10.1128/aem.05806-11.
35.Charles KJ, et al. Assessment of the stability of human viruses and coliphage in groundwater by PCR and infectivity methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2009; 106: 18271837.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Matthews supplementary material
Appendices.doc

 Word (95 KB)
95 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 110 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 659 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.