Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup

  • J. E. MATTHEWS (a1), B. W. DICKEY (a1), R. D. MILLER (a1), J. R. FELZER (a1), B. P. DAWSON (a1), A. S. LEE (a1), J. J. ROCKS (a1), J. KIEL (a1), J. S. MONTES (a1), C. L. MOE (a1), J. N. S. EISENBERG (a2) and J. S. LEON (a1)...

Summary

The purpose of this study was to examine global epidemiological trends in human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks by transmission route and setting, and describe relationships between these characteristics, viral attack rates, and the occurrence of genogroup I (GI) or genogroup II (GII) strains in outbreaks. We analysed data from 902 reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, human NoV outbreaks abstracted from a systematic review of articles published from 1993 to 2011 and indexed under the terms ‘norovirus’ and ‘outbreak’. Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that foodservice and winter outbreaks were significantly associated with higher attack rates. Foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were associated with multiple strains (GI+GII). Waterborne outbreaks were significantly associated with GI strains, while healthcare-related and winter outbreaks were associated with GII strains. These results identify important trends for epidemic NoV detection, prevention, and control.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: J. S. Leon, Emory University, Hubert Department of Global Health, Mailstop 1518-002-7BB, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. (Email: juan.leon@emory.edu)

References

Hide All
1.Patel, MM, et al. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 12241231.
2.Kaplan, JE, et al. The frequency of a Norwalk-like pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. American Journal of Public Health 1982; 72: 13291332.
3.Teunis, PF, et al. Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? Journal of Medical Virology 2008; 80: 14681476.
4.Leon, J, Moe, CL. Role of viruses in foodborne disease. In: Potter, M, ed. Food Consumption and Disease Risk: Consumer–Pathogen Interactions. Baltimore: Woodhead Publishing in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 2006.
5.Leon, JS, et al. Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial for human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2011; 77: 54765482.
6.Zheng, DP, et al. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 2006; 346: 312323.
7.Lopman, BA, et al. Two epidemiologic patterns of norovirus outbreaks: surveillance in England and Wales, 1992–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 7177.
8.Verhoef, LP, et al. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 3138.
9.Fankhauser, RL, et al. Epidemiologic and molecular trends of ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 186: 17.
10.Fankhauser, RL, et al. Molecular epidemiology of ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998; 178: 15711578.
11.Blanton, LH, et al. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000–2004. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006; 193: 413421.
12.Tseng, FC, et al. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in North Carolina, United States: 1995–2000. Journal of Medical Virology 2007; 79: 8491.
13.Widdowson, MA, et al. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and on land: identification of a predominant circulating strain of norovirus – United States, 2002. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004; 190: 2736.
14.Kaplan, JE, et al. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1982; 96: 756761.
15.Bon, F, et al. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses detected in sporadic and outbreak cases of gastroenteritis in France from December 1998 to February 2004. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 46594664.
16.Fretz, R, et al. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to infections with Norovirus in Switzerland, 2001–2003. Epidemiology and Infection 2005; 133: 429437.
17.Noda, M, Fukuda, S, Nishio, O. Statistical analysis of attack rate in norovirus foodborne outbreaks. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2008; 122: 216220.
18.Elliott, AC, Hynan, LS. A SAS® macro implementation of a multiple comparison post hoc test for a Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 2011; 102: 7580.
19.Elliott, AC, Reisch, JS. Implementing a multiple comparison test for proportions in a 2xC crosstabulation in SAS. In: Proceedings of the SAS User's Group International. San Francisco: SAS Global Users Group, 2006, pp. 204231.
20.Davis, CE, et al. An example of dependencies among variables in a conditional logistic regression. In: Moolgavkar, S, Prentice, R, eds. Modern Statistical Methods in Chronic Disease Epidemiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1986, pp. 140147.
21.Heinze, G, Schemper, M. A solution to the problem of separation in logistic regression. Statistics in Medicine 2002; 21: 24092419.
22.Scallan, E. Activities, achievements, and lessons learned during the first 10 years of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network: 1996–2005. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 44: 718725.
23.Kirk, MD, et al. Food safety: foodborne disease in Australia: the OzFoodNet experience. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008; 47: 392400.
24.Yoder, JS, et al. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with recreational water – United States, 2001–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries 2004; 53: 122.
25.Johnston, CP, et al. Outbreak management and implications of a nosocomial norovirus outbreak. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 45: 534540.
26.Zingg, W, et al. Impact of an outbreak of norovirus infection on hospital resources. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2005; 26: 263267.
27.Kroneman, A, et al. Analysis of integrated virological and epidemiological reports of norovirus outbreaks collected within the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network from 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2006. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 29592965.
28.Gallimore, CI, et al. Inter-seasonal diversity of norovirus genotypes: emergence and selection of virus variants. Archives of Virology 2007; 152: 12951303.
29.Lindesmith, LC, Donaldson, EF, Baric, RS. Norovirus GII.4 strain antigenic variation. Journal of Virology 2011; 85: 231242.
30.Chan, MC, et al. Fecal viral load and norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 12781280.
31.Lee, N, et al. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 13991401.
32.Lysen, M, et al. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 24112418.
33.Liu, P, et al. Persistence of human noroviruses on food preparation surfaces and human hands. Food and Environmental Virology 2009; 1: 141147.
34.Seitz, SR, et al. Norovirus human infectivity and persistence in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Published online: 19 August 2011. doi:10.1128/aem.05806-11.
35.Charles, KJ, et al. Assessment of the stability of human viruses and coliphage in groundwater by PCR and infectivity methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2009; 106: 18271837.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Matthews supplementary material
Appendices.doc

 Word (95 KB)
95 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed