Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Estimating the force of infection for HCV in injecting drug users using interval-censored data

  • A. CASTRO-SÁNCHEZ (a1), Z. SHKEDY (a1), N. HENS (a1) (a2), M. AERTS (a1), R. GESKUS (a3) (a4), M. PRINS (a3) (a5), L. WIESSING (a6) and M. KRETZSCHMAR (a7) (a8)...

Summary

Injecting drug users (IDUs) account for most new HCV infections. The objectives of this study were: to estimate the force of infection for hepatitis C virus in IDUs within the interval-censoring framework and to determine the impact of risk factors such as frequency of injection, drug injected, sharing of syringes and time of first injection on the time to HCV infection. We used data from the Amsterdam Cohort Study collected in The Netherlands and focused on those individuals who were HCV negative upon entry into the study. Based on the results, the force of infection was found to vary with time of first injection. The risk of infection was higher in the first 3 years of an IDU's career, implying estimates based on single cross-sectional studies could be biased. Frequency of injection and type of drug injected were found to be highly significant predictors, whereas sharing syringes was not.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Estimating the force of infection for HCV in injecting drug users using interval-censored data
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Estimating the force of infection for HCV in injecting drug users using interval-censored data
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Estimating the force of infection for HCV in injecting drug users using interval-censored data
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: A. Castro-Sánchez, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium. (Email: amparo.castrosanchez@uhasselt.be)

References

Hide All
1.WHO. Hepatitis C (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/). World Health Organization. Accessed 20 July 2009.
2.Hens, N, et al. Seventy five years of estimating the force of infection from current status data, Epidemiology and Infection 2010; 138: 802812.
3.Sun, J. The Statistical Analysis of Interval-Censored Failure Time Data. New York: Springer, 2006.
4.Lindsey, JC, Ryan, LM. Tutorial in biostatistics methods for interval-censored data. Statistics in Medicine 1998; 17: 219238.
5.Dorey, FJ, Little, RJA, Schenker, N. Multiple imputation for threshold-crossing data with interval-censoring. Statistics in Medicine 1993; 12: 15891603.
6.Del Fava, , et al. Joint modeling of HCV and HIV infections among injecting drug users in Italy using repeated cross-sectional prevalence data. Statistical communications in infectious diseases. Published online: 24 May 2011. doi:10.2202/1948-4690.1009.
7.Mathei, C, et al. Evidence for a substantial role of sharing of injecting paraphernalia other than syringes/needles to the spread of hepatitis C among injecting drug users. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2006; 13: 560570.
8.Namata, H. Flexible statistical models for microbial risk assessment and infectious diseases [dissertation]. Diepenbeek, Belgium: Hasselt University, 2008, pp. 6992.
9.Platt, L, et al. Measuring risk of HIV and HCV among injecting drug users in the Russian Federation. European Journal of Public Health 2009; 19: 428433.
10.Sutton, A, et al. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis B and hepatitis C in injecting drug users in England and Wales. BMC Infectious Diseases. Published online: 8 June 2006. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-93.
11.Sutton, A, et al. A comparison between the force of infection estimates for blood-borne viruses in injecting drug user populations across the European Union: a modelling study. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2008; 15: 809816.
12.Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV (ACS). Annual report 2008. Technical report, Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection.
13.Klein, J, Moeschberger, M. Survival Analysis techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York: Springer, 2003, pp. 393423.
14.Turnbull, BW. The empirical distribution with arbitrarily grouped censored and truncated data, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 1976; 38: 290295.
15.Dempster, AP, Laird, NM, Rubin, DB. Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 1977; 39: 138.
16.Pencina, MJ, Larson, MG, D'Agostino, RB. Choice of time scale and its effect on significance of predictors in longitudinal studies. Statistics in Medicine 2007; 26: 13431359.
17.Van den Berg, CHSB, et al. Major decline of hepatitis C virus incidence rate over two decades in a cohort of drug users, European Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 22: 183193.
18.Van den Berg, CHSB, et al. Full participation in harm reduction programmes is associated with risk for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: evidence from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, Addiction 2007; 102: 14541462.
19.Van de Laar, TJW, et al. Changes in risk behavior and dynamics of hepatitis C virus infections among young drug users in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Journal of Medical Virology 2005; 77: 509518.
20.Wiessing, L, et al. Injecting drug use in Europe: stable or declining. Eurosurveillance 2010; 15: 1718.
21.Welp, EA, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in young drug users in Amsterdam. AIDS 2002; 16: 12791284.
22.Van Ameijden, EJC, Coutinho, RA. Large decline in injecting drug use in Amsterdam, 1986–1998: explanatory mechanisms and determinants of injecting transitions. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2001; 55: 356363.
23.Hahn, JA, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and needle exchange use among young injection drug users in San Francisco. Hepatology 2001; 34: 180187.
24.Thorpe, LE, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities among young injection drug users in Chicago, 1997–1999. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000; 182: 15881594.
25.Miller, CL, et al. Opportunities for prevention: Hepatitis C prevalence and incidence in a cohort of young injection drug users. Hepatology 2002; 36: 737742.
26.Miller, M, et al. HIV and hepatitis C virus risk in new and longer-term injecting drug users in Oslo, Norway. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2003; 33: 373379.
27.Hens, N, et al. The correlated and shared gamma frailty model for bivariate current status data: an illustration for cross-sectional serological data. Statistics in Medicine 2009; 28: 27852800.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Appendix

Castro Supplementary Appendix
Castro Supplementary Appendix

 Word (142 KB)
142 KB

Estimating the force of infection for HCV in injecting drug users using interval-censored data

  • A. CASTRO-SÁNCHEZ (a1), Z. SHKEDY (a1), N. HENS (a1) (a2), M. AERTS (a1), R. GESKUS (a3) (a4), M. PRINS (a3) (a5), L. WIESSING (a6) and M. KRETZSCHMAR (a7) (a8)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed