Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 16
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Doshi, Reena H. Shidi, Calixte Mulumba, Audry Eckhoff, Philip Nguyen, Catherine Hoff, Nicole A. Gerber, Sue Okitolonda, Emile Ilunga, Benoit Kebela and Rimoin, Anne W. 2015. The effect of immunization on measles incidence in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Results from a model of surveillance data. Vaccine, Vol. 33, Issue. 48, p. 6786.

    Parham, P. E. Waldock, J. Christophides, G. K. Hemming, D. Agusto, F. Evans, K. J. Fefferman, N. Gaff, H. Gumel, A. LaDeau, S. Lenhart, S. Mickens, R. E. Naumova, E. N. Ostfeld, R. S. Ready, P. D. Thomas, M. B. Velasco-Hernandez, J. and Michael, E. 2015. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 370, Issue. 1665, p. 20130551.

    Grout, Lise Minetti, Andrea Hurtado, Northan François, Gwenola Fermon, Florence Chatelain, Anne Harczi, Géza de Dieu Ilunga Ngoie, Jean N’Goran, Alexandra Luquero, Francisco J Grais, Rebecca F and Porten, Klaudia 2013. Measles in Democratic Republic of Congo: an outbreak description from Katanga, 2010–2011. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Sume, Gerald Etapelong Fouda, André Arsène Bita Kobela, Marie Nguelé, Salomé Emah, Irène and Atem, Peter 2013. A locally initiated and executed measles outbreak response immunization campaign in the nylon health district, Douala Cameroon 2011. BMC Research Notes, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 100.

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel Antonio Swaan, Corien Wichmann, Ole van Steenbergen, Jim and Kretzschmar, Mirjam 2012. Effectiveness and Timing of Vaccination during School Measles Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, Issue. 9, p. 1405.

    Kleczkowski, A. Oles, K. Gudowska-Nowak, E. and Gilligan, C. A. 2012. Searching for the most cost-effective strategy for controlling epidemics spreading on regular and small-world networks. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 9, Issue. 66, p. 158.

    Bruckner, Catherine and Checchi, Francesco 2011. Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review. Conflict and Health, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 13.

    Cairns, K. L. Perry, R. T. Ryman, T. K. Nandy, R. K. and Grais, R. F. 2011. Should Outbreak Response Immunization Be Recommended for Measles Outbreaks in Middle- and Low-Income Countries? An Update. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, Issue. Supplement 1, p. S35.

    Goodson, J. L. Sosler, S. Pasi, O. Johnson, T. Kobella, M. Monono, M. E. and Uzicanin, A. 2011. Impact of a Measles Outbreak Response Immunization Campaign: Maroua, Cameroon, 2009. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, Issue. Supplement 1, p. S252.

    Guerrier, G. Guerra, J. Fermon, F. Talkibing, W.B. Sekkenes, J. and Grais, R.F. 2011. Outbreak response immunisation: the experience of Chad during recurrent measles epidemics in 2005 and 2010. International Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 4, p. 226.

    Luquero, F. J. Pham-Orsetti, H. Cummings, D. A. T. Ngaunji, P. E. Nimpa, M. Fermon, F. Ngoe, N. Sosler, S. Strebel, P. and Grais, R. F. 2011. A Long-Lasting Measles Epidemic in Maroua, Cameroon 2008-2009: Mass Vaccination as Response to the Epidemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, Issue. Supplement 1, p. S243.

    Wiesen, E. Wannemuehler, K. Goodson, J. L. Anand, A. Mach, O. Thapa, A. O'Connor, P. Linayage, J. Diorditsa, S. Hasan, A. M. Uzzaman, S. and Jalil Mondal, M. A. 2011. Stability of the Age Distribution of Measles Cases Over Time During Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2004-2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 204, Issue. Supplement 1, p. S414.

    Kremer, Jacques R. Nkwembe, Edith Oyefolu, Akeeb O. Bola Smit, Sheilagh B. Pukuta, Elisabeth Omilabu, Sunday A. Adu, Festus D. Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe and Muller, Claude P. 2010. Measles Virus Strain Diversity, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 16, Issue. 11, p. 1724.

    Callens, Steven F. J. Shabani, Nicole Lusiama, Jean Lelo, Patricia Kitetele, Faustin Colebunders, Robert Gizlice, Ziya Edmonds, Andrew Van Rie, Annelies and Behets, Frieda 2009. Mortality and Associated Factors After Initiation of Pediatric Antiretroviral Treatment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Goodson, James L. Wiesen, Eric Perry, Robert T. Mach, Ondrej Kitambi, Mary Kibona, Mary Luman, Elizabeth T. and Cairns, K. Lisa 2009. Impact of measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Vaccine, Vol. 27, Issue. 42, p. 5870.

    STEIN-ZAMIR, C. ZENTNER, G. ABRAMSON, N. SHOOB, H. ABOUDY, Y. SHULMAN, L. and MENDELSON, E. 2008. Measles outbreaks affecting children in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 136, Issue. 02,


Exploring the time to intervene with a reactive mass vaccination campaign in measles epidemics

  • R. F. GRAIS (a1), X. DE RADIGUÈS (a1), C. DUBRAY (a1), F. FERMON (a2) and P. J. GUERIN (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2006

The current WHO policy during measles outbreaks focuses on case management rather than reactive vaccination campaigns in urban areas of resource-poor countries having low vaccine coverage. Vaccination campaigns may be costly, or not timely enough to impact significantly on morbidity and mortality. We explored the time available for intervention during two recent epidemics. Our analysis suggests that the spread of measles in African urban settings may not be as fast as expected. Examining measles epidemic spread in Kinshasa (DRC), and Niamey (Niger) reveals a progression of smaller epidemics. Intervening with a mass campaign or in areas where cases have not yet been reported could slow the epidemic spread. The results of this preliminary analysis illustrate the importance of revisiting outbreak response plans.

Corresponding author
Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 75011 Paris, France. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *