Skip to main content
×
Home

Fatal outbreaks of jaundice in pregnancy and the epidemic history of hepatitis E

  • C.-G. TEO (a1)
Summary
SUMMARY

Space–time clustering of people who fall acutely ill with jaundice, then slip into coma and death, is an alarming phenomenon, more markedly so when the victims are mostly or exclusively pregnant. Documentation of the peculiar, fatal predisposition of pregnant women during outbreaks of jaundice identifies hepatitis E and enables construction of its epidemic history. Between the last decade of the 18th century and the early decades of the 20th century, hepatitis E-like outbreaks were reported mainly from Western Europe and several of its colonies. During the latter half of the 20th century, reports of these epidemics, including those that became serologically confirmed as hepatitis E, emanated from, first, the eastern and southern Mediterranean littoral and, thereafter, Southern and Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the rest of Africa. The dispersal has been accompanied by a trend towards more frequent and larger-scale occurrences. Epidemic and endemic hepatitis E still beset people inhabiting Asia and Africa, especially pregnant women and their fetuses and infants. Their relief necessitates not only accelerated access to potable water and sanitation but also vaccination against hepatitis E.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr C.-G. Teo, Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop A33, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (Email: CTeo@cdc.gov)
References
Hide All
1.Saint-Vel O. Note on a form of severe jaundice in pregnant women [in French]. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires 1862; 65: 538539.
2.Ballot . Jaundice epidemic observed in 1858 in Martinique in the Principality of St. Pierre [in French]. Gazette des Hôpitaux Civils et Militaires 1859; 62: 262.
3.Decaudin E. Concomitance des maladies du foie et des reins, et en particulier des reins dans l'ictère. Paris, France: V. A. DeLahaye, 1877, pp. 117.
4.Hervieux E. Puerperal jaundice [in French]. Gazette Médicale de Paris 1867; 22: 240245.
5.Ozanam AF. Histoire médicale générale et particulière des maladies épidémiques, contagieuses et épizotiques qui ont régné en Europe depuis les temps les plus reculés, et notamment depuis le XIVe siècle jusqu'à nos jours, vol. 1. Paris: Méquignon-Marvis, 1817, pp. 320.
6.Wickham Legg J. On the Bile, Jaundice, and Bilious Diseases. London: H. K. Lewis, 1880, pp. 719.
7.Vinay C. Traité des maladies de la grossesse et des suites de couches. Paris, France: J. B. Baillière, 1894, pp. 836.
8.Kerksig F. Of a jaundice epidemic [in German]. Journal der Practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst 1799; 8: 94–109.
9.Carpentier . Danger of jaundice in pregnant women [in French]. Revue Médico-chirurgicale de Paris 1854; 15: 268270.
10.Bardinet . Of epidemic jaundice in pregnant women. Its influence as cause of abortion and mortality [in French]. L'Union Médicale 1863; 133: 242246.
11.Hervieux E. Jaundice epidemic at La Maternité [in French]. Bulletin et Memoires de la Société Médicale des Hopitaux de Paris 1871; 8: 95–100.
12.Decaisne . An epidemic of simple jaundice observed in Paris and in the vicinity [in French]. Gazette Hebdomadaire de Médecine et de Chirurgie 1872; 19: 44.
13.Ollivier A. Study of puerperal chronic diseases [in French]. Archives de Médecine Générale 1873; 1: 567589.
14.Fuchs RG. Poor and Pregnant in Paris: Strategies for Survival in the Nineteenth Century. Piscataway, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1992, pp. 326.
15.Klingelhoeffer . Contribution to epidemic jaundice [in German]. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift 1876; 6: 7677.
16.Smith CE. A synopsis of ten cases of jaundice occurring in pregnant women. Northwestern Medical and Surgical Journal 1874, June, pp. 436440.
17.Young WB. Simple and malignant jaundice of pregnancy: report of three cases. Medical News 1898; 78: 618621.
18.Hardie D. Acute atrophy of the liver in pregnancy. Australasian Medical Gazette 1890; 9: 179184.
19.MacDonald TF. A new epidemic. Australasian Medical Gazette 1887; 7: 247248.
20.Creed JM, Scot-Skirving R. On two cases of acute atrophy of the liver (?) in which recovery took place. Australasian Medical Gazette 1889; 8: 259260.
21.Bertino A. Of acute liver atrophy in pregnancy [in Italian]. La Ginecologia 1908; 14: 417448.
22.Queirolo GB. Epidemic jaundice [in Italian]. La Riforma Medica 1907; 23: 930934.
23.Anon.Epidemic of severe jaundice in pregnant women in Piombino [in Italian]. La Ginecologia Moderna 1908; 1: 649652.
24.Mancini F. Epidemic of jaundice [in Italian]. Il Policlinico Sezione Pratica 1910; 17: 1113.
25.Cova E. On an epidemic of jaundice in Soriano nel Cimino, and the relationship of the disease with pregnancy [in Italian]. Folia Gynaecologia 1911; 5: 331425.
26.Pignataro L. An epidemic of jaundice [in Italian]. Il Policlinico Sezione Pratica 1917; 24: 287288.
27.Tucker EFG. An epidemic of malignant jaundice in Bombay. Indian Medical Gazette 1907; 13: 47.
28.Rabl R. Geographical-pathological investigations of jaundice, acute yellow atrophy, liver cirrhosis and cholelithiasis [in German]. Archiv für Schiffs und Tropen-Hygiene 1934; 38 (Suppl.): S1–80.
29.Zhumatov KhZh, Dardik FG. Epidemic hepatitis in pregnancy [in Russian]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia 1958; 34: 2632.
30.McDonald S. Acute yellow atrophy in syphilis (a preliminary note). British Medical Journal 1918; 1: 7678.
31.Willcox W. Toxic jaundice. Lancet 1931; 218: 111117.
32.Opie EL. On the relation of combined intoxication and bacterial infection to necrosis of the liver, acute yellow atrophy and cirrhosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1910; 12: 367387.
33.Cullinan ER. Idiopathic jaundice (often recurrent) associated with subacute necrosis of the liver. St Bartholomew's Hospital Reports 1936; 19: 55–142.
34.Lucké B. The pathology of fatal epidemic hepatitis. American Journal of Pathology 1944; 20: 471593.
35.Lucké B, Mallory T. The fulminant form of epidemic hepatitis. American Journal of Pathology 1946; 22: 867945.
36.Havens WP. Viral hepatitis. In: Anderson RS, ed. Internal Medicine in World War II, vol. III. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1969, pp. 331384.
37.Mallory TB. The pathology of epidemic hepatitis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1947; 134: 655662.
38.Klemperer P, Killian JA, Heyd CG. The pathology of icterus catarrhalis. Archives of Pathology 1926; 2: 631652.
39.Findlay GM, MacCallum FO, Murgatroyd F. Observations bearing on the aetiology of infective hepatitis (so-called epidemic catarrhal jaundice). Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1939; 32: 575586.
40.Shattuck HF, Browne JC, Preston M. Clinical value for some recent tests for liver function. American Journal of Medical Sciences 1925; 170; 510518.
41.Rich AR. The pathogenesis of the forms of jaundice. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 1930; 47: 338377.
42.Findlay GM, Dunlop JL. A fatal case of acute necrosis of the liver associated with epidemic catarrhal jaundice. British Medical Journal 1932; 1: 652656.
43.Axenfeld H, Brass K. Biopsy and clinical investigations of the so-called icterus catarrhalis [in German]. Frankfurter Zeitschrift für Pathologie 1942; 57: 147236.
44.Dible JH, McMichael J, Sherlock SPV. Pathology of acute hepatitis. Lancet 1943; 2: 402408.
45.Cockayne EA. Catarrhal jaundice, sporadic and epidemic, and its relation to acute yellow atrophy of the liver. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1912; 6: 129.
46.Eppinger H. The pathogenesis of jaundice [in German]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin 1922; 34: 1539.
47.Levett PN. Leptospirosis. Clinical Microbiological Reviews 2001; 14: 296326.
48.Havens WP, Wenner HA. Infectious hepatitis complicated by secondary invasion with salmonella. Journal of Clinical Investigations 1946; 25: 4552.
49.Stokes JF, Miller AA. An outbreak of severe infective hepatitis in Burma. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1947; 16: 211236.
50.Mortimer PP. Arsphenamine jaundice and the recognition of instrument-borne virus infection. Genitourinary Medicine 1995; 71: 109119.
51.MacCallum FO. The natural history of long-incubation period hepatitis. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1972; 6 (Suppl.): S28–33.
52.Roy H. Sporadic infective hepatitis in Calcutta. Calcutta Medical Journal 1946; 43: 303309.
53.Sherman IL, Eichenwald HF. Viral hepatitis: descriptive epidemiology based on morbidity and mortality statistics. Annals of Internal Medicine 1956; 44: 10491069.
54.Mosley JW. Water-borne infectious hepatitis. New England Journal of Medicine 1959; 261: 703708; 748753.
55.Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. Journal of the American Medical Association 1967; 200: 365373.
56.Gust ID, Feinstone SM. Hepatitis A. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988, pp. 239.
57.Blumberg BS. Hepatitis B: the Hunt for a Killer Virus. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 242.
58.Reyes GR, Bradley DW, Lovett M. New strategies for isolation of low abundance viral and host cDNAs: application to cloning of the hepatitis E virus and analysis of tissue-specific transcription. Seminars in Liver Disease 1992; 12: 289300.
59.Purcell RH. The discovery of the hepatitis viruses. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 955963.
60.Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Res 2011; 161: 3–14.
61.Teo CG. Subduing the hepatitis E python. Epidemiology and Infection 2009; 137: 480484.
62.Farber NA. Viral hepatitis in pregnant women – the relationship of the severity of the disease to the etiology of the infection [in Russan]. Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv 1990; 62: 8–10.
63.Acharya SK, et al. Fulminant hepatitis in a tropical population: clinical course, cause, and early predictors of outcome. Hepatology 1996; 23: 14481455.
64.Elinav E, et al. Acute hepatitis A infection in pregnancy is associated with high rates of gestational complications and preterm labor. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 11291134.
65.Ryu HS, et al. Clinical characteristics and gestational complications associated with acute hepatitis A in pregnancy [in Korean]. Korean Journal of Gastroenterology 2010; 56: 307313.
66.Ye JY. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by hepatitis A in the urban districts of Shanghai [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Obstetetrics and Gynecology 1990; 25: 219221, 252.
67.Willner IR, et al. Serious hepatitis A: an analysis of patients hospitalized during an urban epidemic in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 128: 111114.
68.Aziz AB, et al. Prevalence and severity of viral hepatitis in Pakistani pregnant women: a five year hospital based study. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 1997; 47: 198201.
69.Jaiswal SP, et al. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy. Indian Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 2001; 72: 103108.
70.Gonzalez F, et al. Acute hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy [in French]. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 2006; 30: 786789.
71.Monath TP, Barrett AD. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of yellow fever. Advances in Virus Research 2003; 60: 343395.
72.Bryceson AD, et al. Louse-borne relapsing fever. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1970; 39: 129170.
73.Syhavong B, et al. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2010; 104: 475483.
74.Meggs WJ. Epidemics of mold poisoning past and present. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2009; 25: 571576.
75.Combes B, Whalley PJ, Adams RH. Tetracycline and the liver. Progress in Liver Diseases 1972; 4: 589596.
76.Teo CG. Much meat, much malady: changing perceptions of the epidemiology of hepatitis E. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2010; 16: 2432.
77.Jameel S, et al. Enteric non-A, non-B hepatitis: epidemics, animal transmission, and hepatitis E virus detection by the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Medical Virology 1992; 37: 263270.
78.Myint H, et al. A clinical and epidemiological study of an epidemic of non-A non-B hepatitis in Rangoon. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1985; 34: 11831189.
79.Favorov MO, et al. Characteristics of viral hepatitis non-A, non-B with a fecal-oral mechanism of transmission of the infection in southern Uzbekistan [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1989; 34: 436442.
80.Vrati S, Giri DK, Parida SK, Talwar GP. An epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis in south Delhi: epidemiological studies and transmission of the disease to rhesus monkeys. Archives of Virology 1992; 125: 319326.
81.Coursaget P, et al. Outbreak of enterically-transmitted hepatitis due to hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses. Journal of Hepatology 1998; 28: 745750.
82.Kumar S, et al. Virological investigation of a hepatitis E epidemic in North India. Singapore Medical Journal 2006; 47: 769773.
83.Rafiev KhK. Virus hepatitis E: its specific epidemiological features in the Republic of Tajikistan [in Russian]. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1999; 3: 2629.
84.Sailaja B, et al. Outbreak of waterborne hepatitis E in Hyderabad, India, 2005. Epidemiology and Infection 2009; 137: 234240.
85.Lay LAR, et al. Dual infection with hepatitis A and E viruses in outbreaks and in sporadic clinical cases: Cuba 1998–2003. Journal of Medical Virology 2008; 80: 798802.
86.Tandon BN, et al. An epidemic of non-A non-B hepatitis in north India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1982; 75: 739744.
87.Velázquez O, et al. Epidemic transmission of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in Mexico, 1986–1987. Journal of the American Medical Association 1990; 263: 32813285.
88.Hasan ARS, Omer AR, Al-Dulami AA. Occurrence of an outbreak of acute hepatitis E infection in Baquba City. Iraqi Journal of Community Medicine 2006; 19: 2022.
89.Tapia-Conyer R, et al. Hepatitis A in Latin America: a changing epidemiologic pattern. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999; 61: 825829.
90.Mathur P, Arora NK. Epidemiological transition of hepatitis A in India: issues for vaccination in developing countries. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2008; 128: 699704.
91.Birtaseviæ B, et al. Water-borne infectious hepatitis in Bosanski Petrovac during 1963–1964 [in Serbian]. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 1966; 23: 96–100.
92.Mitarnun W. Fulminant hepatitis, possible virus origin: a report of seventeen cases in southern Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 1990; 73: 674683.
93.Usmanov RK, et al. A comparative study of enteral hepatitis E (non-A, non-B) in the valley and mountainous areas of Kirghizia [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1991; 36: 6669.
94.Arankalle VA, et al. Seroepidemiology of water-borne hepatitis in India and evidence for a third enterically-transmitted hepatitis agent. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 1994; 91: 34283432.
95.Yenikomshian H A, Dennis EW. Outbreak of epidemic jaundice at Hemet, Lebanese Republic. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1938; 32: 189196.
96.Kent C. Observations of fourteen cases of acute yellow atrophy [in German]. Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 1938; 62: 429437.
97.Liepmann W. Endemic occurrence of acute yellow atrophy in the University Women's Clinic, Istanbul [in German]. Internationaal Congres voor Verloskunde en Gynaecologie: Amsterdam 4–8 May 1938. Vol. 2. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1938, pp. 262274.
98.Kligler IJ, Btesh DS, Koch W. Observations on two epidemics of infective hepatitis in Palestine among recent immigrants. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1944; 74: 234246.
99.Leffkovitz M. Infectious epidemic jaundice [in Hebrew]. Harefuah 1943; 25: 2428.
100.Btesh S. Infective hepatitis in Palestine. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1944; 38: 3547.
101.Soferman N. Infectious epidemic jaundice and pregnancy [in Hebrew]. Harefuah 1945; 28: 217.
102.Zondek B, Bromberg YM. Infectious hepatitis in pregnancy. Journal of Mount Sinai Hospital New York 1947; 14: 222243.
103.Davies AM, Suchowolski A. The epidemiology in infectious hepatitis in Israel. Journal of Hygiene 1961; 59: 123132.
104.Peretz A, Paldi A, Barzilai D. Infectious hepatitis in pregnancy [in Hebrew]. Harefuah 1955; 48: 212215.
105.Asher C. Infectious hepatitis in pregnancy [in Hebrew]. Dapim Refuiim 1953; 12: 284286.
106.Shalev E, Bassan HM. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy in Israel. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1982; 20: 7378.
107.Corcos A. Cases of primary jaundice in Tunisia [in French]. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Medicine 1952; 136: 248253.
108.Corcos A. Icterus gravis and pregnancy: 8 cases [in French]. La Presse Médicale 1954; 62: 544.
109.Bourdon R, Ezes H. Infectious hepatitis during pregnancy; critical synthesis of 36 observations made from 1952 to 1956 [in French]. Gynécologie et Obstétrique 1956; 55: 288311.
110.Houel E, Fabregoule M, Gares R, Bourdon R. Malignant forms of viral hepatitis during pregnancy [in French]. La Semaine des Hôpitaux de Paris 1958; 34: 10371043.
111.Hugonot R, et al. Severe jaundice epidemic in Morocco [in French]. Maroc Médical 1961; 40: 948952.
112.Wyatt GB. Pregnancy hepatitis in Libya. Lancet 1977; 1: 12041205.
113.Christie AB, et al. Pregnancy hepatitis in Libya. Lancet 1976; 2: 827829.
114.Sheehan HL. Jaundice in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1961; 81: 427440.
115.Delons S, et al. Severe jaundice in pregnant women in Morocco [in French]. Revue Médico-chirurgicale des Maladies du Foie 1968; 43: 117130.
116.Rungs H. Severe forms of viral hepatitis [in French]. Maroc Médical 1972; 52: 2734.
117.Kharouf M, et al. Hepatitis and pregnancy in Tunis. 103 cases compared with 100 cases who were not pregnant [in French]. Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 1980; 9: 887894.
118.Gebreel AO, Dane DS. Hepatitis in pregnancy in Libya. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1983; 77: 321322.
119.Nouasria B, et al. Fulminant viral hepatitis and pregnancy in Algeria and France. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1986; 80: 623629.
120.Ben Hamed S, et al. Jaundice and pregnancy. Apropos of 62 cases [in French]. Revue Française de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique 1988; 83: 543545.
121.Ghazli M, et al. Jaundice and pregnancy. The role of viral hepatitis [in French]. Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 1993; 22: 529531.
122.Belabbes EH, et al. Epidemic non-A, non-B viral hepatitis in Algeria: strong evidence for its spreading by water. Journal of Medical Virology 1985; 16: 257263.
123.Benjelloun S, et al. Seroepidemiological study of an acute hepatitis E outbreak in Morocco. Research in Virology 1997; 148: 279287.
124.Merveille P, Heuls J. An epidemic of virus hepatitis in the colonial camps of Fréjus [in French]. Médecine Tropicale 1951; 11: 401426.
125.Petchot-Bacque P. Epidemic viral hepatitis in 1955–1956 in the Constantine military district of troops in East Algeria; 3,239 cases [in French]. Revue du Corps de Santé Militaire 1957; 13: 378391.
126.Lemaire S, Deroo E. Histoire des Tirailleurs. Paris: Seuil Jeunesse, 2010, pp. 61.
127.Gaubert C. The comatose forms of epidemic viral hepatitis. Apropos of 47 cases [in French]. Journal de Médecine de Bordeaux et du Sud-Ouest 1963; 140: 13071315.
128.Findlay GM, Kirk R, Lewis DJ. Yellow fever and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: the differential diagnosis of yellow fever. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1941; 35: 140164.
129.Beheyt P. Aetiology of the epidemics of jaundice in Central Africa. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1958; 10: 1420.
130.Frank C, et al. The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet 2000; 355: 887891.
131.Bablet J. Severe jaundice and the black African [in French]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1942; 35: 281313.
132.Kirk R. Infective hepatitis in the Sudan. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1961; 64: 185190.
133.Combescot de Marsaguet G, Thomas J. On the subject of 5 cases of recovery from hepatic coma of viral origin in the course of pregnancy [in French]. Médecine Tropicale 1961; 21: 4558.
134.Mazaud R, Moissincac J, Labegorre J. Icterigenic hepatitis of pregnancy [in French]. Médecine Tropicale 1959; 19: 7–22.
135.Payet M, et al. Icterigenic hepatitis in pregnancy. Apropos of 200 cases in Africans [in French]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1961; 54: 398423.
136.Morrow RH, et al. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Accra, Ghana. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1969; 63: 755767.
137.Ogunlesi TO. Hepatic failure in the tropics. British Medical Journal 1968; 2: 809812.
138.Lawson JB. Maternal mortality in West Africa. Ghana Medical Journal 1962; 1: 31–6.
139.Ojo OA, Francis TI, Onifade A. Massive liver necrosis in pregnancy. West African Medical Journal 1971; 20: 339344.
140.Sood U, Hulley WSC, Hutt MSR. Viral hepatitis in Karamoja. Makerere Medical Journal 1966; 10: 4649.
141.Jindani A, Bagshawe A, Forrester AT. Viral hepatitis in Kenya. A preliminary report. East African Medical Journal 1970; 47: 138141.
142.Moffat HJ, Gelfand M. Viral hepatitis in Africans in Rhodesia. Central African Journal of Medicine 1974; 20: 245250.
143.Hurwitz MB. Jaundice in pregnancy: a 10-year study and review. South African Medical Journal 1970; 44: 219222.
144.Parkes JR. Fatal jaundice in pregnancy. South African Medical Journal 1978; 54: 406409.
145.Perisić V, et al. Course and consequences of acute infectious hepatitis in pregnant women in the epidemic of Prizren and vicinity in year 1962–1963 [in Serbian]. Glas Srpska Akademija Nauka I Umetnosti Odeljenje Medicinskih Nauka 1969; 22: 7584.
146.Colaković B, Dragović D, Vućelić M. Epidemiological and clinical interrelations between infectious hepatitis and pregnancy [in Serbian]. Medicinski Pregled 1972; 25: 181185.
147.Kallai L, Gaon J, Pinjo F. Hepatitis and pregnancy [in German]. Wiener Zeitschrift für Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1967; 48: 186195.
148.Birtasević B, et al. Mass epidemic of infectious hepatitis in Cazinska Krajina [in Serbian]. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 1966; 23: 174183.
149.Birtasević B, et al. Observations on water-borne epidemics of viral hepatitis in Yugoslavia [in Serbian]. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 1967; 24: 340343.
150.Wahi PN, Arora MM. Epidemic hepatitis. New England Journal of Medicine 1952; 248: 451454.
151.Viswanathan R. The Delhi outbreak of infectious hepatitis: epidemiology. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1957; 45 (Suppl.): S1–29.
152.Naidu SS, Viswanathan R. Infectious hepatitis in pregnancy during Delhi epidemic. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1957; 45 (Suppl.): S71–76.
153.Raman TK. Infective hepatitis. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1946; 15: 165180.
154.Patel TB. An epidemic of infective hepatitis in Bijapur district (Bombay Province). Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1946; 15: 401402.
155.Phatak LV, Patil K. A study of infective hepatitis in pregnancy. Indian Journal of Medical Science 1956; 10: 594601.
156.Dhamdhere MR, Nadkarni MG. Infectious hepatitis at Aurangabad. Report of an outbreak. Indian Journal of Medical Science 1962; 16: 10061015.
157.Das RK. Infective hepatitis in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India 1968; 18: 903914.
158.Sreenivasan MA, et al. Epidemiological investigations of an outbreak of infectious hepatitis in Ahmedabad city during 1975–76. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1978; 67: 197206.
159.Hillis A, Shrestha SM, Saha NK. An epidemic of infectious hepatitis in the Kathmandu Valley. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 1973; 11: 145149.
160.Shrestha SM, Maila DS. Viral A hepatitis in pregnancy during Kathmandu epidemic. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 1975; 13: 5870.
161.Khuroo MS, et al. Incidence and severity of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. American Journal of Medicine 1981; 70: 252255.
162.Sreenivasan MA, et al. A sero-epidemiologic study of a water-borne epidemic of viral hepatitis in Kolhapur City, India. Journal of Hygiene 1984; 93: 113122.
163.Chakraborty S, et al. Observations on outbreaks of viral hepatitis in Vidisha and Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh, 1980. Journal of Communicable Diseases 1983; 15: 242–8.
164.Naik SR, et al. A large waterborne viral hepatitis E epidemic in Kanpur, India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1992; 70: 597604.
165.Boccia D, et al. High mortality associated with an outbreak of hepatitis E among displaced persons in Darfur, Sudan. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2006; 42: 16791684.
166.International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.Outbreak of hepatitis E in a low income urban community in Bangladesh. Health Sciences Bulletin 2009; 7: 1420.
167.Wong DC, et al. Epidemic and endemic hepatitis in India: evidence for a non-A, non-B hepatitis virus aetiology. Lancet 1980; 8200: 876879.
168.Khuroo MS. Hepatitis E: the enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 1991; 10: 96–100.
169.Arankalle VA, et al. Contribution of HEV and HCV in causing fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis in western India. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 1995; 2: 189193.
170.Prakash C. Serological diagnosis of jaundice epidemics in India. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1998; 29: 497502.
171.Khuroo MS. Study of an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type. .American Journal of Medicine 1980; 68: 818824.
172.Pain GC, Chakraborty AK, Choudhury NR. Outbreak of non-A non-B type viral hepatitis in a Calcutta slum. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1983; 80: 125128.
173.Smego RA Jr., Khaliq AA. Epidemic non-A non-B hepatitis in urban Karachi, Pakistan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1988; 38: 628632.
174.Deo PR, Autkar MS. Epidemic of viral hepatitis in Buladana district, Maharashtra state. Indian Journal of Public Health 1991; 35: 8788.
175.Jameel S, et al. Enteric non-A, non-B hepatitis: epidemics, animal transmission, and hepatitis E virus detection by the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Medical Virology 1992; 37: 263270.
176.Rab MA, et al. Water-borne hepatitis E virus epidemic in Islamabad, Pakistan: a common source outbreak traced to the malfunction of a modern water treatment plant. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1997; 57: 151157.
177.International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.Hepatitis E outbreak in Rajshahi City Corporation. Health Sciences Bulletin 2010; 8: 1218.
178.Kane MA, et al. Epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis in Nepal. Recovery of a possible etiologic agent and transmission studies in marmosets. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984; 252: 31403145.
179.Shrestha S, et al. An epidemic of hepatitis E in Nepal: clinical and epidemiological study. Journal of the Institute of Medicine 1990; 12: 195204.
180.Dilawari JB, et al. Hepatitis E virus: epidemiological, clinical and serological studies of north Indian epidemic. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 1994; 13: 4448.
181.Arankalle VA, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976–1993). Journal of General Virology 1999; 80: 16911700.
182.Gupta DN, Smetana HF. The histopathology of viral hepatitis as seen in the Delhi epidemic (1955–56). Indian Journal of Medical Research 1957; 45 (Suppl.): S101–113.
183.Morrow RH Jr., et al. Unusual features of viral hepatitis in Accra, Ghana. Annals of Internal Medicine 1968; 68: 12501264.
184.Bhagyalaxmi A, Gadhvi M, Bhavsar BS. Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of infectious hepatitis in Dakor Town. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2007; 32: 277279.
185.Bali S, et al. Hepatitis E epidemic with bimodal peak in a town of north India. Indian Journal of Public Health 2008; 52: 189193, 199.
186.Chauhan NT, et al. Epidemic investigation of the jaundice outbreak in Girdharnagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, 2008. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2010; 35: 294297.
187.Vivek R, et al. Investigation of an epidemic of Hepatitis E in Nellore in south India. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2010; 15: 13331339.
188.Swain SK, et al. A hepatitis E outbreak caused by a temporary interruption in a municipal water treatment system, Baripada, Orissa, India, 2004. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2010; 104: 6669.
189.Bhasker Rao K, Ganapathy MN. Infectious hepatitis complicating pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India 1956; 6: 210216.
190.Gupta NP, et al. Infective hepatitis in Lucknow: a survey of 10 year hospital records. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1958; 30: 107113.
191.Kamat SA, Deshpande RS. Infective hepatitis: a clinical study of 2,000 cases. Journal of the Association of Physicians India 1967; 15: 495497.
192.D'Cruz IA, Balani SG, Iyer LS. Infectious hepatitis and pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1968; 31: 449455.
193.Narayana Rao AV, et al. Infectious hepatitis in pregnancy and puerperium – a study of 60 cases. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1969; 23: 471478.
194.Shah CP, et al. The aetiological pattern of jaundice in Gujarat. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1970; 55: 1114.
195.Bhalerao VR, Desi VP, Pai DN. Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Indian Journal of Public Health 1974; 18: 165170.
196.Trivedi DR, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1974; 63: 122125.
197.Zuberi SJ, Samad F, Jafarey SN. Pattern of jaundice in pregnancy. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 1979; 29: 3537.
198.Khuroo MS, et al. Acute sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis in India. American Journal of Epidemiology 1983; 118: 360364.
199.Bal V, et al. Virological markers and antibody responses in fulminant viral hepatitis. Journal of Medical Virology 1987; 23: 7582.
200.Nayak NC, et al. Aetiology and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1989; 4: 345352.
201.Raju GS, et al. Fulminant viral hepatitis: Indian experience. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1989; 4: 161165.
202.Sarkar CS, Giri AK, Maity TK. Jaundice in pregnancy: a clinical study. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1990; 5: 117118.
203.Hamid SS, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure in pregnant women: acute fatty liver or acute viral hepatitis? Journal of Hepatology 1996; 25: 2027.
204.Jaiswal SB, et al. Aetiology and prognostic factors in hepatic failure in central India. Tropical Gastroenterology 1996; 17: 217220.
205.Beniwal M, et al. Prevalence and severity of viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis during pregnancy: a prospective study from north India. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2003; 21: 184185.
206.Khuroo MS, Kamili S. Aetiology, clinical course and outcome of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2003; 10: 6169.
207.Kumar A, et al. Hepatitis E in pregnancy. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 2004; 85: 240244.
208.Dahiya M, et al. Acute viral hepatitis in third trimester of pregnancy. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 2005; 24: 128129.
209.Bista BK, Rana A. Acute hepatitis E in pregnancy – study of 16 cases. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 2006; 45: 182185.
210.Rathi U, Bapat M, Rathi P, Abraham P. Effect of liver disease on maternal and fetal outcome – a prospective study. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 2007; 26: 5963.
211.Patra S, et al. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E virus infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007; 147: 2833.
212.Bhatia V, et al. A 20-year single-center experience with acute liver failure during pregnancy: is the prognosis really worse? Hepatology 2008; 48: 15771585.
213.Devarbhavi H, et al. Pregnancy-associated acute liver disease and acute viral hepatitis: differentiation, course and outcome. Journal of Hepatology 2008; 49: 930935.
214.Al-Mahtab M, et al. HEV infection as an aetiologic factor for acute hepatitis: experience from a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2009; 27: 1419.
215.Hossain N, et al. Liver dysfunction in pregnancy: an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Obstetric Medicine 2009; 2: 1720.
216.Deodhar KP, et al. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy. (Autopsy study of 45 cases to evaluate the cause of death.). Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 1971; 17: 3742.
217.Konar M, et al. Maternal mortality (ten years' survey in Eden Hospital). Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1980; 75: 4551.
218.Shrestha NS, Saha R, Karki C. Near-miss maternal morbidity and maternal mortality at Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 2010; 8: 222226.
219.Gurley ES, et al. Estimating the burden of maternal and neonatal deaths associated with jaundice in Bangladesh: The possible role of hepatitis E infection. American Journal of Public Health (in press).
220.Clark KL, et al. The socioeconomic impact of hepatitis E in Nepal. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999; 61: 505–10.
221.Labrique AB, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors of incident hepatitis E virus infections in rural Bangladesh. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 172: 952961.
222.Tarejev EM. Current aspects of the problem of epidemic hepatitis: Botkin's disease [in French]. Revue Médico-chirurgicale des Maladies du Foie 1960; 35: 225–46.
223.Zhumatov KhZh, Dardik FG. An outbreak of Botkin's disease caused by contaminated water [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1958; 3: 3943.
224.Dardik FG. Some aspects of the epidemiology and prevention of Botkin's disease in the Tselina district [in Russian]. Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana 1962; 22: 5860.
225.Diachenko PN, et al. On the epidemiology of Botkin's disease (epidemic hepatitis) in Kirghizia [in Russian]. Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie Kirgizii 1966; 3: 3741.
226.Zakirov IZ. Epidemic hepatitis and its effect on pregnancy, fetus and newborn [in Russian]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia 1964; 40: 2428.
227.Temper BA, Moroz RI, Chernysheva AV. Course of Botkin's disease in pregnancy [in Russian]. Klinicheskaia Meditsina 1959; 37: 6771.
228.Zhendrinskii IP. Course of pregnancy in Botkin's disease [in Russian]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia 1963; 39: 2026.
229.Rychnev VE. Course of pregnancy in Botkin's disease [in Russian]. Voprosy Okhrany Materinstva i Detstva 1964; 10: 56–9.
230.Elizarov NN. Pregnancy, labor and puerperium in epidemic hepatitis (Botkin's disease) [in Russian]. Voprosy Okhrany Materinstva i Detstva 1965; 10: 6772.
231.Romanov IuA. Clinico-epidemiologic parallells in Botkin's disease during pregnancy and the lactation period [in Russian]. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 1968; 45: 109113.
232.Favorov MO, et al. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of viral non-A, non-B hepatitis with fecal and oral mechanisms of transmission of the infection [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1986; 31: 6569.
233.Shakhgildian IV, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of non-A, non-B viral hepatitis with a fecal-oral transmission mechanism [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1986; 31: 175179.
234.Albetkova A, et al. Characterization of hepatitis E virus from outbreak and sporadic cases in Turkmenistan. Journal of Medical Virology 2007; 79: 16961702.
235.Sharapov MB, et al. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009; 9: 35.
236.Iarasheva DM, et al. The etiological structure of acute viral hepatitis in Tadzhikistan in a period of decreased morbidity [in Russian]. Voprosy Virusologii 1991; 36: 454456.
237.Favorov MO, et al. Hepatitis E [in Russian]. Zhurnal Epidemiologii i Mikrobiologii 1996; 61: 9095.
238.Iarasheva DM, et al. The epidemiological diagnosis of ‘fecal-oral’ hepatitis E in Tajikistan [in Russian]. Zhurnal Epidemiologii i Mikrobiologii 1993; 58: 6366.
239.Cao XY, et al. Epidemiological and etiological studies on enterically transmitted non-A non-B hepatitis in the south part of Xinjiang [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology 1989; 3: 110.
240.Huang RT, et al. Isolation and identification of hepatitis E virus in Xinjiang, China. Journal of General Virology 1992; 73: 11431148.
241.Ji X. An outbreak of non A non B hepaitits in Xinjiang Province [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine 1986; 5: 2729.
242.Xia X. An epidemiologic survey on a type E hepatitis (HE) outbreak [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 1991; 12: 257260.
243.Zhuang H. Hepatitis E and strategies for its control. In: Wen YM, Xu ZY, Melnick JL, eds. Viral Hepatitis in China: Problems and Control Strategies. Monographs in Virology, vol. 19. Basel: Karger, 1992, pp. 126139.
244.Wyatt HG. Attacks of jaundice in Shansi. China Medical Journal 1929; 43: 5253.
245.Robinson HL. Some observations made during an outbreak of epidemic jaundice. China Medical Journal 1929; 43: 118121.
246.Soong YK, et al. Jaundice during pregnancy: review of 47 cases. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 1979; 78: 485494.
247.Gamma V. Clinical aspects of toxic dystrophy of the liver in pregnant women with Botkin's disease (according to the data of the Infectious Disease Hospital of Ulan-Bator) [in Russian]. Sovetskaia Meditsina 1965; 28: 9395.
248.Tsatsralt-Od B, et al. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia. Journal of Medical Virology 2006; 78: 542550.
249.Zhu FC, et al. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine in healthy adults: a large-scale, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 895902.
250.Zhang S, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of sporadic hepatitis E in central China. Virology Journal 2011; 8: 152.
251.Li XM, et al. Clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2005; 11: 46004603.
252.Zhang W, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype diversity in eastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 16301632.
253.Lubis I. Outbreak of hepatitis E in West Kalimantan [in Indonesian]. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran 1994; 95: 4346.
254.Anon.Results of the investigation of a hepatitis outbreak in the downstream sub-district of Kayan, Sintang, West Kalimantan [in Indonesian]. Berita Epidemiologi Republik Indonesia 1991; 3: 2142.
255.Corwin AL, et al. A waterborne outbreak of hepatitis E virus transmission in southwestern Vietnam. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996; 54: 559562.
256.Sedyaningsih-Mamahit ER, et al. First documented outbreak of hepatitis E virus transmission in Java, Indonesia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2002; 96: 398404.
257.Corwin AL, et al. Acute viral hepatitis in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996; 90: 647648.
258.Saat Z, et al. A four year review of acute viral hepatitis cases in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia (1994–1997). Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1999; 30: 106109.
259.Lee GK, et al. Trends in importation of communicable diseases into Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine of Singapore 2010; 39: 764770.
260.Kang HM, et al. Recent etiology and clinical features of acute viral hepatitis in a single center of Korea [in Korean]. Korean Journal of Hepatology 2007; 13: 495502.
261.Yano K, et al. Japan National Hospital Acute Hepatitis Study Group. Dynamic epidemiology of acute viral hepatitis in Japan. Intervirology 2010; 53: 7075.
262.Hammouda AA. Acute virus hepatitis and pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire 1962; 69: 680682.
263.Borhanmanesh F, et al. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy. Severity and effect on gestation. Gastroenterology 1973; 64: 304312.
264.Gelpi AP. Viral hepatitis complicating pregnancy: mortality trends in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1979; 17: 7377.
265.Al-Kandari S, et al. Viral hepatitis and pregnancy in Kuwait. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1987; 81: 395397.
266.Medhat A, et al. Acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1993; 40: 2531.
267.Kumar RM, et al. Seroprevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2001; 100: 9–15.
268.Huang CC, et al. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the Mexico isolate of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Virology 1992; 191: 550558.
269.Montalvo Villalba MC, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype 1, Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 13201322.
270.Shiroma M, et al. Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Diagnosis, mortality and evolution of pregnancy [in Portuguese]. Revista do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo 1969; 24: 349360.
271.Reyes VE, Saldana García R, Valenzuela J. Hepatitis and pregnancy [in Spanish]. Ginecología y Obstetricia de México 1971; 30: 635653.
272.Díaz Saldaña J, et al. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy [in Spanish]. Ginecología y Obstetricia de México 1978; 43: 399404.
273.Lyra AC, et al. HEV, TTV and GBV-C/HGV markers in patients with acute viral hepatitis. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2005; 38: 767775.
274.Schlauder GG, et al. Identification of 2 novel isolates of hepatitis E virus in Argentina. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000; 182: 294297.
275.Ibarra H, et al. Acute hepatitis caused by virus A, E and non A-E in Chilean adults [in Spanish]. Revista Médica de Chile 2001; 129: 523530.
276.Reyes HB, et al. Acute fulminating hepatitis non-A non-B in pregnancy: a clinical case of probable sporadic hepatitis caused by E virus [in Spanish]. Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología 1995; 60: 199204.
277.Bile K, et al. Contrasting roles of rivers and wells as sources of drinking water on attack and fatality rates in a hepatitis E epidemic in Somalia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994; 51: 466474.
278.Isaäcson M, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis E in Northern Namibia, 1983. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2000; 62: 619625.
279.Maila HT, Bowyer SM, Swanepoel R. Identification of a new strain of hepatitis E virus from an outbreak in Namibia in 1995. Journal of General Virology 2004; 85: 8995.
280.Sarthou JL, et al. Characterization of an antigen-antibody system associated with epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis in West Africa and experimental transmission of an infectious agent of primates. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Virology 1986; 437E: 225232.
281.Byskov J, et al. An outbreak of suspected water-borne epidemic non-A non-B hepatitis in northern Botswana with a high prevalence of hepatitis B carriers and hepatitis delta markers among patients. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989; 83: 110116.
282.Goumba AI, Konamna X, Komas NP. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic. BMC Infectious Diseases 2011; 11: 93.
283.He J, et al. Molecular characterization of a hepatitis E virus isolate from Namibia. Journal of Biomedical Science 2000; 7: 334348.
284.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Enterically transmitted non-A, non-B Hepatitis – East Africa. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1987; 36: 241244.
285.Mast E, et al. Hepatitis E among refugees in Kenya: minimal apparent person-to-person transmission, evidence for age-dependent disease expression, and new serological assays. In: Kishioka K, Suzuki H, Mishiro S, Oda T, eds. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp. 375378.
286.Teshale EH, et al. Hepatitis E epidemic, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 126129.
287.Rioche M, et al. High incidence of sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis in Morocco: epidemiologic study [in French]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 1991; 84: 117127.
288.Crato M, et al. Viral markers of acute hepatitis: A, B, C, D, and E in Dakar. October 92–October 93 [in French]. Dakar Médical 1993; 38: 183185.
289.McCarthy MC, et al. Acute hepatitis E infection during the 1988 floods in Khartoum, Sudan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1994; 88: 177.
290.Tucker TJ, et al. Hepatitis E in South Africa: evidence for sporadic spread and increased seroprevalence in rural areas. Journal of Medical Virology 1996; 50: 117119.
291.Rioche M, et al. Incidence of sporadic hepatitis E in Ivory Coast based on still problematic serology. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1997; 75: 349354.
292.Coursaget P, et al. Role of hepatitis E virus in sporadic cases of acute and fulminant hepatitis in an endemic area (Chad). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1998; 58: 330334.
293.Adjei AA, et al. Unexpected elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatitis E virus infection among persons who work with pigs in accra, Ghana. Virology Journal 2010; 7: 336.
294.Mirghani OA, Saeed OK, Basama FM. Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. East African Medical Journal 1992; 69: 445449.
295.Tsega E, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection in pregnancy in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal 1993; 31: 173181.
296.Strand RT, et al. Infectious aetiology of jaundice among pregnant women in Angola. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2003; 35: 401403.
297.Ahmed RE, Karsany MS, Adam I. Brief report: acute viral hepatitis and poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant Sudanese women. Journal of Medical Virology 2008; 80: 17471748.
298.Adjei AA, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana. Virology Journal 2009; 6: 108.
299.Hannachi N, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis E among pregnant women in central Tunisia [in French]. Pathologie et Biologie 2011; 59: e115–118.
300.Guerra F. Medical colonization of the New World. Medical History 1963; 7: 147154.
301.Chernin E. The early British and American journals of tropical medicine and hygiene: an informal survey. Medical History 1992; 36: 7083.
302.Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE. Evolutionary history and population dynamics of hepatitis E virus. PLoS One 2010; 5: e14376.
303.Jilani N, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection and fulminant hepatic failure during pregnancy. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2007; 22: 676–82.
304.Prusty BK, et al. Selective suppression of NF-ΚBp65 in hepatitis virus-infected pregnant women manifesting severe liver damage and high mortality. Molecular Medicine 2007; 13: 518526.
305.World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund.Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: the Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. Geneva: World Health Organization Press, 2006, pp. 41.
306.Hutton G, Bartram J. Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2008; 86: 1319.
307.Shrestha MP, et al. Safety and efficacy of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2007; 356: 895903.
308.Basnyat B. Neglected hepatitis E and typhoid vaccines. Lancet 2010; 376: 869.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 39 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 298 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.