1. Sivapalasingam, S, et al. Fresh produce: a growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. Journal of Food Protection 2004; 67: 2342–2353.
2. Kirk, MD, Fullerton, K, Gregory, J. Fresh produce outbreaks in Australia 2001–2006. Board 21. In: 2008 International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Program and Abstracts Book. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008, pp. 49–50.
3. Lewis, HC, et al. Outbreaks of shigellosis in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn, August 2007 – final summary. Eurosurveillance 2007; 12: E071004 2.
4. Nuorti, JP, et al. A widespread outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:3 infection from iceberg lettuce. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2004; 189: 766–774.
5. Hjertqvist, M, et al. Four outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis after consuming raspberries, Sweden, June–August 2006. Eurosurveillance 2006; 11: E060907.1.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ongoing multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of fresh spinach – United States, September 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006; 55: 1045–1046.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with multiple raw produce items – United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008; 57: 929–934.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Poona infections associated with eating cantaloupe from Mexico – United States and Canada, 2000–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002; 51: 1044–1047.
9. Pezzoli, L, et al. Packed with Salmonella – investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2008; 5: 661–668.
10. Nygard, K, et al. International outbreak of Salmonella Thompson caused by contaminated ruccola salad – update. Eurosurveillance 2004; 8: 2602.
11. Emberland, KE, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella Weltevreden infections in Norway, Denmark and Finland associated with alfalfa sprouts, July–October 2007. Eurosurveillance 2007; 12: 3321.
12. Pollack, S. Consumer demand for fruit and vegetables: the U.S. example. In: Regmi, A, ed. Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption and Trade. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service/United States Department of Agriculture, 2001; publication no.WRS01-1. pp. 49–54.
13. Rimhanen-Finne, R, et al. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causing a large outbreak associated with carrots in Finland, 2006. Epidemiology and Infection 2008. Published online: 4 January 2008. doi:10.1017/S0950268807000155.
14. Pakalniskiene, J, et al. A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella anatum infection after a high school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection 2008. Published online: 6 March 2008. doi:10.1017/S0950268808000484.
15. Gaynor, K, et al. International outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers. Epidemiology and Infection 2008. Published online: 4 January 2008. doi:10.1017/S0950268807000064.
16. Reingold, AL. Outbreak investigations – a perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 21–27.
17. Gupta, SK, et al. Outbreak of Salmonella Braenderup infections associated with Roma tomatoes, northeastern United States, 2004: a useful method for subtyping exposures in field investigations. Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 1165–1173.
18. Hedberg, CW, et al. Outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with eating uncooked tomatoes: implications for public health. Epidemiology and Infection 1999; 122: 385–393.
19. Anonymous. Eggs and Salmonella infections. British Medical Journal 1944; 2: 760–761.
20. Rodrigue, DC, Tauxe, RV, Rowe, B. International increase in Salmonella enteritidis: a new pandemic? Epidemiology and Infection 1990; 105: 21–27.
21. St Louis, ME, et al. The emergence of grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonella enteritidis infections. New implications for the control of salmonellosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1988; 259: 2103–2107.
22. Gast, RK. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens by culturing pools of egg contents. Poultry Science 1993; 72: 267–274.
23. Riley, LW, et al. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. New England Journal of Medicine 1983; 308: 681–685.
24. Rangel, JM, et al. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 603–609.
25. Bowen, A, et al. Infections associated with cantaloupe consumption: a public health concern. Epidemiology and Infection 2006; 134: 675–685.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with raw tomatoes eaten in restaurants – United States, 2005–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2007; 56: 909–911.
27. Mohle-Boetani, JC, et al. Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts 2000–2002: epidemiological and environmental investigations. Epidemiology and Infection 2008; 2: 1–10.
28. Ho, AY, et al. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with imported raspberries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 783–788.
29. Wheeler, C, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353: 890–897.
30. Munnoch, SA, et al. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul in Australia associated with cantaloupe consumption. Epidemiology and Infection 2008. Published online: 18 June 2008. doi:10.1017/S0950268808000861.
31. Greene, SK, et al. Recurrent multistate outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with tomatoes from contaminated fields, 2005. Epidemiology and Infection 2008; 136: 157–165.
32. Swaminathan, B, et al. Building PulseNet International: an interconnected system of laboratory networks to facilitate timely public health recognition and response to foodborne disease outbreaks and emerging foodborne diseases. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2006; 3: 36–50.
33. Widdowson, MA, et al. Norovirus and foodborne disease, United States, 1991–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 95–102.
34. Burnett, SL, Beuchat, LR. Human pathogens associated with raw produce and unpasteurized juices, and difficulties in decontamination. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2001; 27: 104–110.
35. Tyler, HL, Triplett, EW. Plants as a habitat for beneficial and/or human pathogenic bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology 2008; 46: 53–73.
36. Brandl, MT, Mandrell, RE. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68: 3614–3621.
37. Zhuang, RY, Beuchat, LR, Angulo, FJ. Fate of Salmonella montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine. Applied Environmental Microbiology 1995; 61: 2127–2131.
38. Brandl, MT, et al. Comparison of survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the phyllosphere with that in the rhizosphere of spinach and radish plants. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70: 1182–1189.
39. Taormina, PJ, Beuchat, LR. Behavior of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts during the sprouting process as influenced by treatments with various chemicals. Journal of Food Protection 1999; 62: 850–856.
40. Jaquette, CB, Beuchat, LR, Mahon, BE. Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage. Applied Environmental Microbiology 1996; 62: 2212–2215.
41. Burnett, SL, Chen, J, Beuchat, LR. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the surfaces and internal structures of apples as detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66: 4679–4687.
42. Janisiewicz, WJ, et al. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential for transmission by fruit flies. Applied Environmental Microbiology 1999; 65: 1–5.
43. Itoh, Y, et al. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Applied Environmental Microbiology 1998; 64: 1532–1535.
44. Charkowski, AO, et al. Differences in growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68: 3114–3120.
45. Guo, X, et al. Survival of salmonellae on and in tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit development through fruit ripening. Applied Environmental Microbiology 2001; 67: 4760–4764.
46. Chancellor, DD, et al. Green onions: potential mechanism for hepatitis A contamination. Journal of Food Protection 2006; 69: 1468–1472.
47. Fiore, AE. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38: 705–715.
48. Cooley, M, et al. Incidence and tracking of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a major produce production region in California. PLoS ONE 2007; 2(11): e1159. Published online: 14 November 2007. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001159.
49. Jay, MT, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feral swine near spinach fields and cattle, central California coast. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13(12) (http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/13/12/1908.htm). Accessed 28 Nov 2008.
50. Shi, X, et al. Persistence and growth of different Salmonella serovars on pre- and postharvest tomatoes. Journal of Food Protection 2007; 70: 2725–2731.
51. Sivapalasingam, S, et al. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport infection linked to mango consumption: impact of water-dip disinfestation technology. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003; 37: 1585–1590.
52. Penteado, AL, Eblen, BS, Miller, AJ. Evidence of Salmonella internalization into fresh mangos during simulated postharvest insect disinfestation procedures. Journal of Food Protection 2004; 67: 181–184.
53. Rushing, J, Angulo, F, Beuchat, L. Implementation of a HACCP program in a commercial fresh-market tomato packinghouse: a model for the industry. Dairy, Food, and Environmental Sanitation 1996; 16: 549–553.
54. Davis, H, et al. A shigellosis outbreak traced to commercially distributed shredded lettuce. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 128: 1312–1321.
55. Srikantiah, P, et al. Web-based investigation of multistate salmonellosis outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 610–612.
56. Lin, C, Wei, C. Transfer of Salmonella Montevideo onto the interior surfaces of tomatoes by cutting. Journal of Food Protection 1997; 60: 858–862.
58. Golden, D, Rhodehaver, J, Kautter, D. Growth of Salmonella in cantaloupe, watermelon and honeydew melons. Journal of Food Protection 1993; 56: 194–196.
59. Tauxe, R, et al. Microbial hazards and emerging issues associated with produce: a preliminary report to the National advisory committee on microbiologic Criteria for Foods. Journal of Food Protection 1997; 60: 1394–1471.
60. Vojdani, JD, Beuchat, LR, Tauxe, RV. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005. Journal of Food Protection 2008; 71: 356–364.
64. Mumma, GA, et al. Egg quality assurance programs and egg-associated Salmonella enteritidis infections, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 1782–1789.
65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – 10 States, United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006; 55: 392–395.
66. Naugle, AL, et al. Sustained decrease in the rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7-positive raw ground beef samples tested by the food safety and inspection service. Journal of Food Protection 2006; 69: 480–481.