Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009

  • A. NESBITT (a1), A. RAVEL (a2), R. MURRAY (a1), R. McCORMICK (a1), C. SAVELLI (a1), R. FINLEY (a1), J. PARMLEY (a3), A. AGUNOS (a3), S. E. MAJOWICZ (a4), M. GILMOUR (a5), the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Public Health Partnership (a1) (a5) (a6) and the Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network (a6)...
Summary
SUMMARY

Salmonella Enteritidis has emerged as the most prevalent cause of human salmonellosis in Canada. Recent trends of S. Enteritidis subtypes and their potential sources were described by integrating Salmonella data from several Canadian surveillance and monitoring programmes. A threefold increase in S. Enteritidis cases from 2003 to 2009 was identified to be primarily associated with phage types 13, 8 and 13a. Other common phage types (4, 1, 6a) showed winter seasonality and were more likely to be associated with cases linked to international travel. Conversely, phage types 13, 8 and 13a had summer seasonal peaks and were associated with cases of domestically acquired infections. During agri-food surveillance, S. Enteritidis was detected in various commodities, most frequently in chicken (with PT13, PT8 and PT13a predominating). Antimicrobial resistance was low in human and non-human isolates. Continued integrated surveillance and collaborative prevention and control efforts are required to mitigate future illness.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: A. Nesbitt, Centre for Food-borne, Environmental, and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, 120-255 Woodlawn Road, West, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1H 8J1. (Email: Andrea.Nesbitt@phac-aspc.gc.ca)
References
Hide All
1. Government of Canada. Laboratory surveillance data for enteric pathogens in Canada: annual summary 2006. National Microbiology Laboratory, 2007.
2. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Federally reportable diseases in Canada – 2011 (http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/disemala/rep/repe.shtml). Accessed 7 October 2011.
3. RodriguezDC, TauxeRV, RoweB. International increase in Salmonella Enteritidis: a new pandemic? Epidemiology and Infection 1990; 105: 2127.
4. Government of Canada. Laboratory surveillance data for enteric pathogens in Canada: annual summary 1999–2005. National Microbiology Laboratory, 2007.
5. RibotEM, et al. Standardization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella for PulseNet. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2006; 3: 5967.
6. WardL, De SaRJ, RoweB. A phage-typing scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis. Epidemiology and Infection 1987; 99: 291294.
7. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Hatchery Regulations (http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/H-3.3/C.R.C.-c.1023). Accessed 5 October 2009.
8. Statistics Canada. Demographic estimates section, July population estimates, 2009 final intercensal estimate. Demography Division, 2010.
9. GilmanJ, MyattM.EpiCalc2000 version 1.02. Computer Software, Brixton Books, 1998.
10. OlsonAB, et al. Limited genetic diversity in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT13. BMC Microbiology 2007; 7: 87.
11. ThomasW, WilsonW. Canadian Salmonella Enteritidis control symposium and workshop. Proceedings of the Canadian Salmonella Enteritidis Control Symposium and Workshop, Vancouver, British Columbia: Intersol Group, 2011.
12. MarcusR, et al. Re-assessment of risk factors for sporadic Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infections: a case-control study in five FoodNet sites, 2002–2003. Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 8492.
13. VoetschAC, et al. Analysis of the FoodNet case-control study of sporadic Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infections using persons infected with other Salmonella serotypes as the comparison group. Epidemiology and Infection 2009; 137: 408416.
14. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe, 2010.
15. KimuraAC, et al. Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): 244252.
16. United States Food and Drug Administration. National antimicrobial resistance monitoring system: retail meat annual report, 2007 (http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistanceMonitoringSystem/ucm164662.htm). Accessed 6 April 2010.
17. LittleCL, et al. Prevalence, characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw poultry meat in the UK, 2003–2005. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2008; 18: 403414.
18. RibeiroAR, et al. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2007; 38: 296299.
19. SureshT, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and other Salmonellas in the eggs and egg-storing trays from retail markets of Coimbatore, South India. Food Microbiology 2006; 23: 294299.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection associated with eating shell eggs – United States 1999–2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2003; 51: 11491152.
21. AltekruseSF, et al. Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler chickens, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 18481852.
22. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Profile of the Canadian Chicken Industry: Interprovincial trade in chickens (http://www.agr.gc.ca/poultry-volaille/prindc6_eng.htm#sec63). Accessed 20 September 2010.
23. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Profile of the Canadian Chicken Industry: Canadian imports of chicken meat and meat products (http://www.agr.gc.ca/poultry-volaille/prindc6_eng.htm#sec64). Accessed 20 September 2010.
24. DoorduynY, et al. Risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium (DT104 and non-DT104) infections in The Netherlands: predominant roles for raw eggs in Enteritidis and sandboxes in Typhimurium infections. Epidemiology and Infection 2006; 134: 617626.
25. PatrickME, et al. Salmonella Enteritidis infections, United States, 1985–1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 17.
26. St LouisME, et al. The emergence of grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonella Enteritidis infectious. Journal of the American Medical Association 1988; 259: 21032107.
27. European Food Safety Authority. The community summary report of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2005. European Food Safety Authority Journal 2007; 130: 34–117.
28. BradenCR. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and eggs: a national epidemic in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2006; 43: 512517.
29. Egg Farmers of Canada. Canadian Egg Marketing Agency – egg producer testing program (http://www.eggs.ca/IndustryHealthPro/Media_Centre.aspx). Accessed 6 April 2010.
30. FrenetteD. Salmonella Enteritidis detection and eradication program. The Quebec egg board food safety program. In: Proceedings of the Ontario Association of Poultry Practitioners Symposium: Salmonellosis, antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Guelph, Ontario, 2009.
31. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Egg and egg products (http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/eggoeu/eggoeue.shtml). Accessed 16 September 2010.
32. DeWinterLM, et al. Risk assessment of shell eggs internally contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis. International Food Risk Analysis Journal 2011; 1: 4081.
33. DANMAP. DANMAP 2008 – Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark (http://www.danmap.org/pdfFiles/Danmap_2008.pdf). Accessed 6 April 2010.
34. BrowningLM, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in Scotland, 2004 (excluding Typhi and Paratyphi). Health Protection Scotland Weekly Report 2005; 39: 268272.
35. ThrelfallEJ, et al. Assessment of factors contributing to changes in the incidence of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium from humans in England and Wales in 2000, 2002 and 2004. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2006; 28: 389395.
36. Carrique-MasJJ, et al. Trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from animals in Great Britain from 1990 to 2005. The Veterinary Record 2008; 162: 541546.
37. Health Canada Veterinary Drug Directorate. Categorization of antimicrobial drugs based on importance in human medicine (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/consultation/vet/consultations/amr_ram_hum-med-rev-eng.php). Accessed 17 September 2010.
38. MolbakK, NeimannJ. Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella Enteritidis, Denmark, 1997–1999. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 156: 654661.
39. PoppeC, et al. The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis and other Salmonella sp. among Canadian registered commercial chicken broiler flocks. Epidemiology and Infection 1991; 107: 201211.
40. RenwickSA, et al. Epidemiological associations between characteristics of registered broiler chicken flocks in Canada and the Salmonella culture status of floor litter and drinking water. Canadian Veterinary Journal 1992; 33: 449458.
41. PoppeC, et al. Salmonella Enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 1992; 56: 226232.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 72 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 207 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.