1.O'Brien, KL, et al. Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. Lancet 2009; 374: 893–902.
2.Gilbert, GL. Retreat of the pneumococcus? Medical Journal of Australia 2000; 173 (Suppl.): S20–S21.
3.Roche, P, Krause, V. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2002. Communcable Diseases Intelligence 2003; 27: 456–476.
4.Australian Immunisation Handbook, 9th edn, 2008. Chapter 3.15 Pneumococcal disease. Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Health and Aging, 2008.
5.Bettinger, JA, et al. The effect of routine vaccination on invasive pneumococcal infections in Canadian children, Immunization Monitoring Program, Active 2000–2007. Vaccine 2010; 28: 2130–2136.
6.Hanquet, G, et al. Impact of conjugate 7-valent vaccination in Belgium: addressing methodological challenges. Vaccine 2011; 29: 2856–64.
7.Liao, WH, et al. Impact of pneumococcal vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in Taiwan. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2010; 29: 489–492.
8.Pirez, MC, et al. Impact of universal pneumococcal vaccination on hospitalizations for pneumonia and meningitis in children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2011; 30: 669–674.
9.Gosbell, IB, Neville, SA. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: a decade of results from south-western Sydney. Communcable Diseases Intelligence 2000; 24: 340–343.
10.Roche, PW, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2006. Communcable Diseases Intelligence 2008; 32: 18–30.
11.Kirkwood, BR, Sterne, JAC. Standardization. In: Essential Medical Statistics. Malden, Massachusetts, Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003, pp. 263–271.
12.Dortet, L, et al. Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 19A in France: molecular capsular serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and epidemiology. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2009; 65: 49–57.
13.Jacobs, MR, et al. Changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in Cleveland: a quarter century of experience. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 982–990.
14.Linares, J, et al. Changes in antimicrobial resistance, serotypes and genotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae over a 30-year period. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2010; 16: 402–410.
15.Williams, SR, et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Australian children after introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Medical Journal of Australia 2011; 194: 116–120.
16.Dagan, R, Klugman, KP. Impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines on antibiotic resistance. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2008; 8: 785–795.
17.Stephens, DS, et al. Incidence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: population-based assessment. Lancet 2005; 365: 855–863.
18.Fenoll, A, et al. Susceptibility of pneumococci causing meningitis in Spain and prevalence among such isolates of serotypes contained in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009; 64: 1338–1340.
19.Hsu, HE, et al. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360: 244–256.
20.Pelton, SI, et al. Emergence of 19A as virulent and multidrug resistant pneumococcus in Massachusetts following universal immunization of infants with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2007; 26: 468–472.
21.Reinert, R, et al. Pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 19A: review of the literature and implications for future vaccine development. Vaccine 2010; 28: 4249–4259.
22.Gottlieb, T, et al. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistances in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Australia, 2005: Report from the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2008; 32: 242–249.
23.Yoshioka, CR, et al. Analysis of invasive pneumonia-causing strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility. Journal of Pediatric (Rio de Janeiro) 2011; 87: 70–75.
24.Borg, MA, et al. Prevalence of penicillin and erythromycin resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates reported by laboratories in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2009; 15: 232–237.
25.Nielsen, KL, et al. Characterization and transfer studies of macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae from Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 42: 586–593.
26.Shibl, AM. Distribution of serotypes and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease isolates among children aged 5 years and under in Saudi Arabia (2000–2004). Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2008; 14: 876–879.
27.Calbo, E, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease among children in a health district of Barcelona: early impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2006; 12: 867–872.
28.Tyrrell, GJ, et al. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae pre- and post-seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Alberta, Canada, 2000–2006. Vaccine 2009; 27: 3553–3560.
29.Mantese, OC, et al. Prevalence of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of invasive strains of pneumococcus in children: analysis of 9 years. Journal of Pediatric (Rio de Janeiro) 2009; 85: 495–502.
30.Ahmed, A, et al. Pharmacodynamics of vancomycin for the treatment of experimental penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1999; 43: 876– 881.
31.Tunkel, AR, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 39: 1267–1284.
32.Hanna, JN, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in non-Indigenous people in north Queensland, 2001–2009. Medical Journal of Australia 2010; 193: 392–396.
33.Lehmann, D, et al. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in aboriginal and non-aboriginal western Australians from 1997 through 2007 and emergence of nonvaccine serotypes. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010; 50: 1477–1486.
34.Hsu, KK, et al. Changing serotypes causing childhood invasive pneumococcal disease: Massachusetts, 2001– 2007. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010; 29: 289–293.
35.Kaplan, SL, et al. Serotype 19A Is the most common serotype causing invasive pneumococcal infections in children. Pediatrics 2010; 125: 429–436.
36.Maraki, S, et al. Serotypes and susceptibilities of paediatric clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Crete, Greece, before and after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2010; 29: 1449–1451.
37.Techasaensiri, C, et al. Epidemiology and evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by multidrug resistant serotypes of 19A in the 8 years after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization in Dallas, Texas. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010; 29: 294–300.
38.Imohl, M, et al. Temporal variations among invasive pneumococcal disease serotypes in children and adults in Germany (1992–2008). International Journal of Microbiology 2010; 2010: 121–136.
39.Choi, EH, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 275–281.
40.Pillai, DR, et al. Genome-wide dissection of globally emergent multi-drug resistant serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae. BMC Genomics 2009; 10: 642.
41.Xu, X, et al. Distribution of serotypes, genotypes, and resistance determinants among macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2010; 54: 1152–1159.
42.Hanage, WP, et al. Diversity and antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage isolates in the post-heptavalent conjugate vaccine era. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007; 195: 347–352.
43.Beall, BW, et al. Shifting genetic structure of invasive serotype 19A pneumococci in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011; 203: 1360–1368.
44.van Gils, EJ, et al. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococcal serotype 19A strains. Journal of the American Medical Association 2010; 304: 1099–1106.
45.Lee, HJ, et al. Immune response to 19A serotype after immunization of 19F containing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Korean children aged 12–23 months. Korean Journal of Pediatrics 2011; 54: 163–168.