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    Tsang, Tim K. Lau, Lincoln L.H. Cauchemez, Simon and Cowling, Benjamin J. 2016. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus. Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 123.

    Napoli, C Fabiani, M Rizzo, C Barral, M Oxford, J Cohen, J Niddam, L Goryński, P Pistol, A Lionis, C Briand, S Nicoll, A Penttinen, P Gauci, C Bounekkar, A Bonnevay, S and Beresniak, A 2015. Assessment of human influenza pandemic scenarios in Europe. Eurosurveillance, Vol. 20, Issue. 7, p. 21038.

    Lau, Lincoln L. H. Nishiura, Hiroshi Kelly, Heath Ip, Dennis K. M. Leung, Gabriel M. and Cowling, Benjamin J. 2012. Household Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1). Epidemiology, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 531.

    Gustin, K. M. Belser, J. A. Wadford, D. A. Pearce, M. B. Katz, J. M. Tumpey, T. M. and Maines, T. R. 2011. Influenza virus aerosol exposure and analytical system for ferrets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue. 20, p. 8432.


Low secondary transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in households following an outbreak at a summer camp: relationship to timing of exposure

  • T. J. DOYLE (a1) (a2) and R. S. HOPKINS (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 21 June 2010

Following an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a residential summer camp for boys aged 10–16 years, we assessed secondary household transmission of the novel virus after their return home. Of 212 study participants who attended camp, 49 had confirmed or probable influenza for a primary attack rate of 23%. Of 87 exposed household contacts who did not attend camp, only three instances of probable transmission were observed, for a household secondary attack rate of 3·5%. All secondary cases occurred in households where the ill camp attendee returned home 1 day after onset of illness, with an attack rate of 14·3% in household contacts in this category. Returning home after peak infectivity to others and advanced warning prior to reintegration of sick individuals into the household probably contributed to the overall low secondary attack rate observed.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Mr T. J. Doyle, 4052 Bald Cypress Way, Bin A-12, Tallahassee, FL32399-1720, USA. (Email:
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360: 26052615.

4.JP Fox , Influenza virus infections in Seattle families, 1975–1979. II. Pattern of infection in invaded households and relation of age and prior antibody to occurrence of infection and related illness. American Journal of Epidemiology 1982; 116: 228242.

8.CT Witkop , Novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak at the U.S. Air Force Academy: epidemiology and viral shedding duration. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010; 38: 121126.

9.BJ Cowling , Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PLoS One 2008; 3: e2101.

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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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