In order to analyse the impact of vaccination against cytomegalovirus (CMV) on congenital infection incidence using current vaccines tested in phase II clinical trials, we simulated different scenarios by mathematical modelling, departing from the current vaccine characteristics, varying age at vaccination, immunity waning, vaccine efficacy and mixing patterns. Our results indicated that the optimal age for a single vaccination interval is from 2 to 6 months if there is no immunity waning. Congenital infection may increase if vaccine-induced immunity wanes before 20 years. Congenital disease should increase further when the mixing pattern includes transmission among children with a short duration of protection vaccine. Thus, the best vaccination strategy is a combined schedule: before age 1 year plus a second dose at 10–11 years. For CMV vaccines with low efficacy, such as the current ones, universal vaccination against CMV should be considered for infants and teenagers.
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