Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study

  • J. A. AYUKEKBONG (a1), M. E. ANDERSSON (a1), G. VANSARLA (a2), F. TAH (a3), T. NKUO-AKENJI (a4), M. LINDH (a1) and T. BERGSTRÖM (a1)...

Summary

We studied the seasonal fluctuation of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon. Two hundred participants aged between 1 and 69 years were prospectively followed up. Each participant provided monthly faecal samples over a 12-month period. A total of 2484 samples were tested using multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus. The effect of weather variables and risk factors were analysed by Pearson correlation and bivariate analysis. Overall, enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus (21·6% of specimens), followed by norovirus (3·9%) and rotavirus (0·4%). Norovirus and enterovirus were detected throughout the year with a peak of norovirus detection at the beginning of the rainy season and a significant alternation of circulation of norovirus genogroups from one month to the next. Age <5 years and consumption of tap water were risk factors for norovirus infection. Better understanding of factors influencing transmission and seasonality may provide insights into the relationship between physical environment and risk of infection for these viruses.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Author for correspondence: Dr J. A. Ayukekbong, University of Gothenburg, Guldhedsgatan 10 B, Gothenburg SE-41346, Sweden. (Email: james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se)

References

Hide All
1. Wilhelmi, I, Roman, E, Sanchez-Fauquier, A. Viruses causing gastroenteritis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2003; 9: 247262.
2. Tapparel, C, et al. Picornavirus and enterovirus diversity with associated human diseases. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2013; 14: 282293.
3. Hansman, GS, et al. Genetic and antigenic diversity among noroviruses. Journal of General Virology 2006; 87: 909919.
4. Lopman, BA, et al. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, 1995–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 9096.
5. Kaplan, JE, et al. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1982; 96: 756761.
6. Koopmans, M, et al. Foodborne viruses. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 2002; 26: 187205.
7. Mattner, F, et al. Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2006; 12: 6974.
8. Murata, T, et al. Prolonged norovirus shedding in infants ⩽6 months of age with gastroenteritis. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2007; 26: 4649.
9. Thapar, N, Sanderson, IR. Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries. Lancet 2004; 363: 641653.
10. Simpson, R, et al. Infantile viral gastroenteritis: on the way to closing the diagnostic gap. Journal of Medical Virology 2003; 70: 258262.
11. Parashar, UD, et al. Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 304306.
12. Koopmans, M, Van, Asperen I. Epidemiology of rotavirus infections in The Netherlands. Acta Paediatrica (Suppl.) 1999; 88: 3137.
13. Mounts, AW, et al. Cold weather seasonality of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000; 181 (Suppl. 2): S284287.
14. Pasquinelli, L. Enterovirus infections. Pediatric Reviews 2006; 27: e1415.
15. Palacios, G, Oberste, MS. Enteroviruses as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Journal of Neurovirology 2005; 11: 424433.
16. Grimwood, K, et al. Acute flaccid paralysis from echovirus type 33 infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 22302232.
17. Yamashita, K, et al. Epidemics of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 in Japan. A report of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Agents in Japan. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 1994; 47: 221239.
18. Fisman, D. Seasonality of viral infections: mechanisms and unknowns. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2012; 18: 946954.
19. Parashar, UD, Monroe, SS. ‘Norwalk-like viruses’ as a cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Reviews in Medical Virology 2001; 11: 243252.
20. Arvelo, W, et al. Norovirus outbreak of probable waterborne transmission with high attack rate in a Guatemalan resort. Journal of Clinical Virology 2012; 55: 811.
21. Nenonen, NP, et al. Marked genomic diversity of norovirus genogroup I strains in a waterborne outbreak. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2012; 78: 18461852.
22. Lysen, M, et al. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 24112418.
23. Shuman, EK. Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 362: 10611063.
24. Wolffs, PF, et al. Replacing traditional diagnostics of fecal viral pathogens by a comprehensive panel of real-time PCRs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011; 49: 19261931.
25. Brittain-Long, R, et al. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of respiratory tract infections. Journal of Clinical Virology 2008; 41: 5356.
26. World Meteorological Organization. Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation, 7th edn. Geneva: American Meteorological Society, 2008.
27. Nenonen, NP, et al. Molecular analysis of an oyster-related norovirus outbreak. Journal of Clinical Virology 2009; 45: 105108.
28. Ayukekbong, J, et al. Enteric viruses in healthy children in Cameroon: viral load and genotyping of norovirus strains. Journal of Medical Virology 2011; 83: 21352142.
29. Njouom, R, et al. Viral etiology of influenza-like illnesses in Cameroon, January-December 2009. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012; 206 (Suppl. 1): S2935.
30. Solomon, T, et al. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2010; 10: 778790.
31. Dedman, D, et al. Surveillance of small round structured virus (SRSV) infection in England and Wales, 1990–5. Epidemiology and Infection 1998; 121: 139149.
32. Lopman, BA, et al. A summertime peak of ‘winter vomiting disease’: surveillance of noroviruses in England and Wales, 1995 to 2002. BMC Public Health 2003; 3: 13.
33. McSwiggan, DA, Cubitt, D, Moore, W. Calicivirus associated with winter vomiting disease. Lancet 1978; 1: 1215.
34. Cannon, JL, et al. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: a comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. Journal of Food Protection 2006; 69: 27612765.
35. Duizer, E, et al. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70: 45384543.
36. Estes, MK, Prasad, BV, Atmar, RL. Noroviruses everywhere: has something changed? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2006; 19: 467474.
37. Zheng, DP, et al. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 2006; 346: 312323.
38. Riera-Montes, M, et al. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Epidemiology and Infection 2011; 139: 19281935.
39. Oluwatoyin, Japhet M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: high prevalence of G12P[8] rotavirus strains and detection of a rare norovirus genotype. Journal of Medical Virology 2012; 84: 14891496.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed