Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Multiclonal outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a collegiate football team

  • A. J. HALL (a1) (a2), D. BIXLER (a2) and L. E. HADDY (a2)

An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) occurred in a college football team in August 2006. Of 109 players on the team roster, 88 (81%) were interviewed during a cohort investigation. Twenty-five cases were identified, six of which were culture-confirmed. Available culture isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which identified two different MRSA strains associated with the outbreak. Playing positions with the most physical contact (offensive linemen, defensive linemen, and tight ends) had the greatest risk of infection [risk ratio (RR) 5·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·3–11·5. Other risk factors included recent skin trauma (RR 1·9, 95% CI 0·95–3·7), use of therapeutic hydrocollator packs (RR 2·5, 95% CI 1·1–5·7), and miscellaneous training equipment use (RR 2·1, 95% CI 1·1–4·1). The outbreak was successfully controlled through team education and implementation of improved infection-control practices and hygiene policies.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr A. J. Hall, West Virginia Department of Health & Human Resources, 350 Capitol Street, Room 125, Charleston, WV 25301, USA. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3. SL Davis , Epidemiology and outcomes of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2007; 45: 17051711.

6. RS Daum . Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. New England Journal of Medicine 2007; 357: 380390.

9. G Turabelidze , Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 422427.

10. K Como-Sabette , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at canoe camp. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 17591761.

11. A Borer , Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in institutionalized adults with developmental disabilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 966970.

13. CE Zinderman , Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among military recruits. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 941944.

17. M Gilbert , Outbreak in Alberta of community-acquired (USA300) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people with a history of drug use, homelessness or incarceration. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2006; 175: 149154.

19. DM Nguyen , L Mascola , E Bancroft . Recurring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in a football team. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 526532.

20. M Müller-Premru , New strains of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin causing an outbreak of severe soft tissue infection in a football team. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2005; 24: 848850.

25. JA Rihn , Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a local high school football team unsuccessful interventions. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2005; 24: 841843.

26. SV Kazakova , A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352: 468475.

28. DM Sosin , An outbreak of furunculosis among high school athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1989; 17: 828832.

29. PC Bartlett , RJ Martin , BR Cahill . Furunculosis in a high school football team. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1982; 10: 371374.

31. LK McDougal , Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the United States: establishing a national database. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 51135120.

32. N Walker , R Gupta , J Cheesbrough . Blood pressure cuffs: friend or foe? Journal of Hospital Infection 2006; 63: 167169.

33. JOM Ormerod , Risk of MRSA transmission from tourniquets. Journal of Hospital Infection 2006; 64: 300301.

34. G French , Contamination of doctors' and nurses' pens with nosocomial pathogens. Lancet 1998; 351: 213.

37. MA Beard-Peglar , E Stubbs , AM Vickery . Observations on the resistance to drying of staphylococcal strains. Journal of Medical Microbiology 1988; 26: 251255.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 77 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.