Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 104 with chromosomally encoded resistance to five or more antimicrobial drugs (R-type ACSSuT+) has been reported increasingly frequently as the cause of human and animal salmonellosis since 1990. Among animal isolates from the northwestern United States (NWUS), R-type ACSSuT+ Typhimurium isolates increased through the early 1990s to comprise 73% of Typhimurium isolates by 1995, but subsequently decreased to comprise only 30% of isolates during 1998. NWUS S. Typhimurium R-type ACSSuT+ were consistently (99%) phage typed as DT104 or the closely related DTu302. S. Typhimurium isolates from cattle with primary salmonellosis, randomly selected from a national repository, from NWUS were more likely to exhibit R-type ACSSuT+ (19/24, 79%) compared to isolates from other quadrants (17/71, 24%; P < 0.01). Human patients infected with R-type ACSSuT+ resided in postal zip code polygons of above average cattle farm density (P < 0.05), while patients infected with other R-types showed no similar tendency. Furthermore, humans infected with R-type ACSSuT+ Typhimurium were more likely to report direct contact with livestock (P < 0.01) than humans infected with other R-types.
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