Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-7hjq6 Total loading time: 0.385 Render date: 2021-06-14T07:08:52.665Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

A new concept of the epidemic process of influenza A virus

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 October 2009

R. E. Hope-Simpson
Affiliation:
Epidemiological Research Unit, 86 Dyer Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
D. B. Golubev
Affiliation:
All-Union Research Institute of Influenza, prof. Popor str. 15/17. Leningrad, U.S.S.R.
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Summary

Influenza A virus was discovered in 1933, and since then four major variants have caused all the epidemies of human influenza A. Each had an era of solo world prevalence until 1977 as follows: H0N1 (old style) strains until 1946. H1N1 (old style) strains until 1957, H2N2 strains until 1968. then H3N2 strains, which were joined in 1977 by a renewed prevalence of H1N1 (old style) strains.

Serological studies show that H2N2 strains probably had had a previous era of world prevalence during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, and had then been replaced by H3N2 strains from about 1900 to 1918. From about 1907 the H3N2 strains had been joined, as now. by H1N1 (old style) strains until both had been replaced in 1918 by a fifth major variant closely related to swine influenza virus A/Hswine1N1 (old style), which had then had an era of solo world prevalence in mankind until about 1929. when it had been replaced by the H0N1 strains that were first isolated in 1933.

Eras of prevalence of a major variant have usually been initiated by a severe pandemic followed at intervals of a year or two by successive epidemics in each of which the nature of the virus is usually a little changed (antigenic drift), but not enough to permit frequent recurrent infections during the same era. Changes of major variant (antigenic shift) are large enough to permit reinfection. At both major and minor changes the strains of the previous variant tend to disappear and to be replaced within a single season, worldwide in the case of a major variant, or in the area of prevalence of a previous minor variant.

Pandemics, epidemics and antigenic variations all occur seasonally, and influenza and its viruses virtually disappear from the population of any locality between epidemics, an interval of many consecutive months. A global view, however, shows influenza continually present in the world population, progressing each year south and then north, thus crossing the equator twice yearly around the equinoxes, the tropical monsoon periods. Influenza arrives in the temperate latitudes in the colder months, about 6 months separating its arrival in the two hemispheres.

None of this behaviour is explained by the current concept that the virus is surviving like measles virus by direct spread from the sick providing endless chains of human influenza A. A number of other aspects of the human host influenza A virus relationship encountered in household outbreaks are among the list of 20 difficulties that are inexplicable by the current concept of direct spread.

Alternative concepts have usually been designed to counter particular difficulties and are incompatible with other features of influenzal behaviour in mankind. The new concept detailed in the appendix provides simple explanations for most if not all of the difficulties. It proposes that influenza A virus cannot normally be transmitted during the illness because it too rapidly becomes non-infectious in a mode of persistence or latency in the human host. Many months or a year or two later it is reactivated by a seasonally mediated stimulus which, like all seasonal phenomena, is ultimately dependent on variations in solar radiation caused by the tilt of the plane of earth's rotation in relation to that of its circumsolar orbit. The carriers, who are always widely seeded throughout the world population, become briefly infectious and their non-immune companions, if infected, comprise the whole of the next epidemic. The reactivated virus particles must encounter the immunity they have engendered in the carrier, thus allowing minor mutants an advantage over virions identical with the parent virus, and so favouring antigenic drift and automatic disappearance of predecessor and prompt seasonal replacement. Antigenic shift and recycling of major variants may also be explained by virus latency in the human host.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1987

References

Ahmed, R., Canning, W. M., Kauffman, R. S., Sharpe, A. H., Hallum, J. V. & Fields, B. N. (1981). Role of the host cell in persistent viral infection: co-evolution of L cells and reovirus during persistent infection. Cell 25, 325332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Air, G. (1981). Sequence relationships among the haemagglutinin genes of 12 subtypes of influenza A virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 78, 76397643.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, D. J. (1982). Avian influenza viruses – recent developments. The Veterinary Bulletin 52, 341359.Google Scholar
Alexander, D. J., Assaad, F., Bachmann, P. A., Chu, K., Easterday, B. C.Hannoun, C. M., Hinshaw, V. S., Kaplan, M. M., Laver, W. G., Ottis, K., Romvary, J. J., Scholtissek, C., Shortridge, K. F., Slepushkin, A. N., Tumova, B. & Webster, R. G. (1981). The ecology of influenza viruses: a WHO memorandum. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 59, 869873.Google Scholar
Alling, D. W., Blackwelder, W. C. & Stuart-Harris, C. (1981). A study of excess mortality during influenza epidemics in the United States, 1968–1976. American Journal of Epidemiology 113, 3043.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Almond, J. W. (1977). A single gene determines the host range of influenza virus. Nature 270, 617618.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andral, B., Toquin, D., Madec, F., Aymard, M., Gourreau, J-M., Kaiser, C., Fontaine, M. & Metz, M-H. (1985). Disease in turkeys associated with H1N1 influenza virus following an outbreak of the disease in pigs. Veterinary Record 116, 617618.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andrewes, C. H. (1951). The epidemiology of influenza in the light of the 1951 outbreak. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 44, 803804.Google ScholarPubMed
Andrewes, C. H. (1952). Prospects for prevention of influenza. The James M. Anders Lecture XXVIII. Transactions & Studies, College of Physicians of Philadelphia 20, 18.Google Scholar
Andrewes, C. H. (1958). The epidemiology of influenza. The Royal Society of Health Journal 78, 533536.Google ScholarPubMed
Archetti, I. & Horsfall, F. L. Jr, (1950). Persistent antigenic variation of influenza A viruses after incomplete neutralization in ovo with heterologous immune serum. Journal of Experimental Medicine 92, 441462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arikawa, J., Yamane, N. & Ishida, N. (1981). Serological evidence of natural recombinant influenza virus (HswlN2) infection among pigs in Japan. Acta Virologica 25, 225229.Google Scholar
Arikawa, J., Yamane, N., Totsukawa, K. & Ishida, N. (1982). The follow-up study of swine and Hong Kong influenza virus infection among Japanese hogs. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 136, 353358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aron, R. A., Medvedeva, M. N. & Golubev, D. B. (1981). Role of ts mutants of influenza virus in the development of a persistent infection of MDCK cells. Acta Virologica 25, 335.Google ScholarPubMed
Azadova, N. B. (1980). Factors in virus persistence. Soviet Progress in Virology 1, 914.Google Scholar
Bean, W. J. (1984). Correlation of influenza A nucleoprotein genes with host species. Virology 133, 438442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bean, W. J, Cox, N. J. & Kendal, A. P. (1980). Recombination of influenza A viruses in nature. Nature 284, 638640.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bean, W. J., Kawaoka, Y., Wood, J.M., Pearson, J. E. & Webster, R. G. (1985). Characterization of virulent and avirulent A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 viruses: potential role of defective interfering RNAs in nature. Journal of Virology 54, 151160.Google ScholarPubMed
Beare, A. S., Kendal, A. P. & Craig, J. W. (1980). Further studies in man of HswlNl viruses. Journal of Medical Virology 5, 3338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bektimirov, T. A., Moisiadi, S. A., Kitsak, V. Ya., Prokudina-Kantorovich, E. N. & Berezina, O. N. (1976). Analysis of reproduction of influenza virus under chronic infectious conditions. Voprosy Virusologii 22, 293297.Google Scholar
Belyakov, V. D., Golurev, D. B., Zuev, V. A., Karpukhin, G. I., Medvedeva, M. N., Skripchenko, G. S., Frolov, A. F. & Khristoforov, Yu. P. (1983). Antigenic heterogeneity of human influenza A virus population and its role in the epidemic process. Vestnik Akademii Medizinski 5, 2428.Google Scholar
Beveridge, W. I. B. (1977). The start of pandemics: site, season and spread. Development in Biological Standardization 39, 443444.Google Scholar
Black, F. L., Woodall, J. P., Evans, A. S., Liebhaber, H. & Henle, G. (1970). Prevalence of antibody against viruses in the Tiroyo, an isolated Amazonian tribe. American Journal of Epidemiology 91, 430438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronitki, A., Sarateanu, D., Surdan, C. & Popescu, A. (1974). Equine epizootic caused by influenza virus type A2/England/42/72. Review of Roumanian Virology 25, 207210.Google Scholar
Buckler-White, A. J., Naeve, C. W. & Murphy, B. R. (1986). Characterization of a gene coding for M proteins which is involved in host range restriction of an avian influenza A virus in monkeys. Journal of Virology 57, 697700.Google ScholarPubMed
Burnet, F. M. (1945). Virus as Organism (The Dunham, Edward K. lectures for 1944). p. 105. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
Carter, M. J. & Mary, B. W. (1982). Incomplete influenza A virus displays anomalous interference. Archives of Virology 74, 7176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chakraverty, P. (1971). Antigenic relationships between influenza B viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 45, 755766.Google Scholar
Chang, C. P., New, A. E., Taylor, J. F. & Chiang, H. S. (1976). Influenza virus isolations from dogs during a human epidemic in Taiwan. International Journal of Zoonoses 3, 6164.Google ScholarPubMed
Chang, C. P., New, A. E., Irving, G. S., Chiang, H. S. & Taylor, J. F. (1977). A surveillance of human influenza virus in swine in Southern Taiwan. International Journal of Zoonoses 4 2530.Google ScholarPubMed
Čiampor, F., Sidorenko, E. V., Taikova, N.V. & Bystrická, M. (1981). Ultrastructural localization by immunoperoxidase techniques of influenza virus antigens in abortive infection of I cells. Acta virologira Praque 25, 381389.Google Scholar
Conti, G., Valcavi, P., Natali, A. & Schito, G. C. (1980). Different patterns of replication in influenza-virus-infected cells. Archives of Virology 66, 309320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cox, N. J., Bai, Z. S. & Kendal, A. P. (1983). Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) viruses in 1980–81; antigenic and genomic analyses. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 61, 143152.Google Scholar
Davenport, F. M. (1977). Reflections on the epidemiology of Myxovirus infections. Medical Microbiology & Immunology 164, 6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, L. E., Caldwell, G. G., Lynch, R. E., Bailey, R. E. & Chin, T. D. Y. (1970). Hong Kong influenza: the epidemiologic features of a high school family study analyzed and compared with a similar study during the 1957 Asian influenza epidemic. American Journal of Epidemiology 92, 240247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, A. R., Ueda, M., Hiti, A. L. & Nayak, D. P. (1981). Structure and expression of the haemagglutinin gene of the H0N1 strain of influenza virus. Abstract of Vth International Congress of Virology, Strasbourg, p. 393.Google Scholar
De, B. K. & Nayak, D. P. (1980). Defective interfering influenza viruses and host cells: establishment and maintenance of persistent influenza virus infection in MDBK and HeLa cells. Journal of Virology 36, 847859.Google ScholarPubMed
Desselberger, U., Nakajima, K., Alfino, P., Pedersen, F. S., Haseltine, W. A., Hannoun, C. & Palese, P. (1978). Biochemical evidence that ‘new’ influenza virus strains in nature may arise by recombination (reassortment). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 75, 33413345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Easterday, B. C. (1975). Animal influenza. In The Influenza Viruses and Influenza (ed. Kilbourne, E. D.), pp. 464468. New York: Academic Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Fang, R., Jou, W. M., Huylebroeck, D., Devos, R. & Fiers, W. (1981). Complete structure of A/duck/Ukraine/63 influenza haemagglutinin gene: animal virus as progenitor of human H3 Hong Kong 19C8 influenza haemagglutinin. Cell 25, 315323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenner, F. J. & White, D. O. (1970). Medical Virology, p. 166. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Francis, T. Jr, (1960). On the doctrine of original antigenic sin. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104, 572578.Google Scholar
Francis, T. Jr, Davenport, F. M. & Hennessy, A. V. (1953). A serological recapitulation of human infection with different strains of influenza virus. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians 66, 231239.Google ScholarPubMed
Frank, A. I., Taber, L. H. & Wells, J. M. (1983). Individuals infected with two subtypes of influenza A virus in the same season. Journal of Infectious Diseases 147, 120124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frolov, A. F., Shcherbinskaya, A. M., Rybalko, S. L., Gavrilov, S. V., Jatel, T. P. & Gvozdev, B. N. (1978). Phenomenon of prolonged circulation of the influenza AO virus in the body. Mikrobiologii Zhurnal 40, 102104.Google ScholarPubMed
Frolov, A. F., Shcherbinskaya, A. M. & Gavrilov, S. V. (1981). Mechanism of persistent infection of influenza virus in the organism. Abstract of Vth International Congress of Virology, Strasbourg, p. 394.Google Scholar
Frolov, A. F., Shcherbinskaya, A. M. & Sklyanskaya, E. I. (1981). Properties of influenza viruses isolated from mice at various stages of influenza infection. Voprosy Virusologii 5, 544547.Google Scholar
Gardner, I. D. & Shortridge, K. F. (1979). Recombination as a mechanism in the evolution of influenza viruses: a two-year study of ducks in Hong Kong. Review of Infectious Diseases 1, 885890.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gavrilov, V. I., Asher, D. M., Vyalushkina, S. D., Ratushkina, L. S., Zmieva, R. G. & Tumyan, B. G. (1972). Persistent infection of continuous line of pig kidney cells with a variant of the WSN strain of A0 virus (36405). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology 140, 109117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gengqi, L., Xinchang, G., Chu, C. M. (Zhu, J.), Guifang, R., Ruilian, F. & Weiqin, R. (1980). Antigenic relationship between Hi and H2 of influenza A virus. Scienlia Sinensis 23, 10611068.Google Scholar
Gething, M.-J. & Sambrook, J. (1981). Cell-surface expression of influenza haemagglutinin from a cloned DNA copy of the RNA gene. Nature 293, 620625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gill, P. & Murphy, A. W. (1985). Naturally acquired immunity to influenza type A. Lessons from two coexisting subtypes. Medical Journal of Australia 142, 9498.Google ScholarPubMed
Glezen, W. P., Couch, R. B. & Six, H. R. (1982). The influenza herald wave. American Journal of Epidemiology 116, 589598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gneyshev, M. N. & Oi', A. I. (ed) (1977). Effects of Solar Activity on the Earth's Atmosphere and Biosphere. Jerusalem; Israel Program for Scientific Translations (Keter Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd).Google Scholar
Goldfield, M., Bartley, J. D., Pizzuti, W., Black, H. C., Altman, R. & Halperin, W. E. (1977). Influenza in New Jersey in 197G: isolations of influenza A/New Jersey/76 virus at Fort Dix. Journal of Infectious Disease 136, 347355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golubev, D. B. (1975). Some actual aspects of antigenic influenza virus variability study. Voprosy Virusologii 1, 117121.Google Scholar
Golubev, D. B. (1984). Origin of pandemic strains of influenza viruses. Voprosy virusologii 6, 762766.Google Scholar
Golubev, D. B., Galitarov, S. S., Polyakov, Yu. M., Litvinova, O. M., Bannikov, A. I., Simonenskaya, V. K., Yuknova, L. G. & Medvedeva, M. A. (1984). Antigenic anachronisms of influenza viruses A (H2N2) in Leningrad in 1980. Communication II. Laboratory characteristics of influenza viruses A/Leningrad/80. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 11, 56.Google Scholar
Golubev, D. B., Karpukhin, G. I., Galitarov, S. S. & Denisov, G. M. (1985). Type A influenza (H2N2) viruses isolated in Leningrad in 1980. Journal of Hygiene 95, 493504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Golubev, D. B. & Medvedeva, M. N. (1978). Experimental investigation of changes in the antigenic structure of influenza viruses during their persistence. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology & Microbiology 22, 2338.Google ScholarPubMed
Gourreau, J. M., Kaiser, C., Madec, F., Vannier, P., Aymard, M., Vigouroux, A. & Salingrades, F. (1985). Passage du virus grippale par la voie transplacentaire chez le pore, dans les conditions naturelles. Annales de VInstitut Pasteur: Virologie 136 E, 5563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hattwick, M. A. W., O'Brien, R. J., Hoke, C. H. Jr, & Dowdle, W. R. (1976). Pandemic influenza and the swine influenza virus. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 10, 283292.Google ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, V. S., Alexander, D. J., Aymard, M., Bachmann, P. A., Easterday, B. C., Hannoun, C., Kida, H., Lipkind, M., MacKenzie, J. S., Nerome, K., Schild, G. C., Scholtissek, C., Senne, D. A., Shortridge, K. F., Skehel, J. J. & Webster, R. G. (1984). Antigenic comparisons of swine-influenza-like H1N1 isolates from pigs, birds and humans: an international collaborative study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 62, 871878.Google ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, V. S., Bean, W. J., Webster, R. G. & Sriram, G. (1980). Genetic reassortment of influenza A viruses in the intestinal tract of ducks. Virology 102, 412419.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, V. S., Webster, R. G., Bean, W. J., Downie, J. & Senne, D. A. (1983). Swine influenza-like viruses in turkeys: potential source of virus for humans? Science 220, 206208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, V. S., Webster, R. G. & Turner, B. (1978). Novel influenza A viruses isolated from Canadian feral ducks; including strains antigenically related to swine influenza (HswlNl) viruses. Journal of General Virology 41, 115127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinshaw, V. S., Webster, R. G. & Turner, B. (1979). Waterborne transmission of influenza A viruses? Intervirology 11, 6668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsch, A. (1883). Handbook of Historical and Geographical Pathology, vol. i, pp. 741. Translated by Creighton, C.. London.Google Scholar
Holland, J. J., Grabeau, E. A., Jones, C. L. & Semier, B. L. (1979). Evolution of multiple genome mutations during long-term persistent infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. Cell 16, 495504.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1948). The period of transmission in certain epidemic diseases: an observational method for its discovery. Lancet ii, 755769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1952). Infectiousness of communicable diseases in the household (measles, chickenpox and mumps). Lancet ii, 549564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1979). Epidemic mechanisms of type A influenza. Journal of Hygiene 83, 1126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1981). The role of season in the epidemiology of influenza. Journal of Hygiene 86, 3547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1983). Recognition of historic influenza epidemics from parish burial records: a test of prediction from a new hypothesis of influenza epidemiology. Journal of Hygiene 91, 293308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1984). Age and secular distribution of virus-proven influenatients in successive epidemics 1961–1976 in Cirencester; epidemiological significance discussed. Journal of Hygiene 92, 303336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hope-Simpson, R. E. (1986). The method of transmission of epidemic influenza: further evidence from archival mortality data. Journal of Hygiene 96, 353375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Housworth, W. J. & Langmuir, A. D. (1974). Excess mortality from epidemic influenza, 1957–1966. American Journal of Epidemiology 100, 4048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoyle, F., Wickhamasinghe, C. & Watkins, J. (1986). Viruses from Space and Related Matters. Cardiff: University College Cardiff Press.Google Scholar
V. Hoyninoen-Huehne, V. & Scholtissrk, C. (1983). Low genetic mixing between influenza viruses of different geographic regions. Archives of Virology 76, 6367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, A. S. & Baltimore, D. (1970). Defective viral particles and viral disease processes. Nature 226, 325327.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isaacs, A. (1951). The 1951 influenza virus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 44, 801803.Google Scholar
Ivannikov, Yu. G., Marinich, I. G., Lukyanov, Yu. B., Naikhin, M. V., Bykov, S. E., Gordon, M. A., Taros, L. Yo. & Karpukhin, G. I. (1980). Disputed questions of influenza immunology. Soviet Progress in Virology 3, 120126.Google Scholar
Ivanova, N. A., Grinbaum, E. B., Taros, L. Yu., Luzyanina, T. Ya. & Smorodintsev, A. A. (1982). Serological substantiation of continuing circulation of influenza A (H0N1) and A (H2N2) viruses in children. Voprosy Virusologii 27, 667671.Google Scholar
Jakab, G.J., Astry, C. L. & Warr, G. A. (1983). Alveolitis induced by influenza virus. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 128, 730738.Google ScholarPubMed
Janda, J. M., Davies, A. R., Nayak, D. P. & De, B. K. (1979). Diversity and generation of defective interfering influenza virus particles. Virology 95, 4858.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, R. T., Lazzarinen, R. A. & Waksman, B. H. (1980). Mechanisms of virus persistence. Conference report, American Neurological Association, pp. 616617.Google Scholar
Kantorovich-Prokudina, E. N., Semyanova, N. P., Berezina, O. N. & Zhdanov, V. M. (1980). Gradual changes of influenza virions during passage of undiluted materials. Journal of General Virology 50, 2331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, M. M. (1982). The epidemiology of influenza as a zoonosis. The Veterinary Record, 395399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendal, A. P., Noble, G. R. & Dowdle, W. R. (1977). Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1976 from man and pig contain two coexisting subpopulations with antigenically distinguishable haemagglutinins. Virology 82, 111121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendal, A. P., Noble, G. R., Skehel, J. J. & Dowdle, W. R. (1978). Antigenic similarity of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from epidemics in 1977–1978 to ‘Scandinavian’ strains isolated in epidemics of 1950–1951. Virology 89, 632636.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kilbourne, E. D. (1975). Epidemiology of Tnfluenza. In The Influenza Viruses and Influenza (ed. Kilbourne, E. D.) pp. 513523. New York: Academic Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Klimov, A.I. & Ghendon, Y. Z. (1981). Genome analysis of H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated in the USSR during an epidemic in 1961–1962. Archives of Virology 70, 225232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koch, E. M, Neubert, W. J. & Hofschneider, P. H. (1984). Lifelong persistence of paramyxovirus Sendai-6/94 in C129 mice: detection of latent viral RNA by hybridization with a cloned genomic cDNA probe. Virology 136, 7888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krystal, M., Buonaguario, D., Young, J. F. & Palese, P. (1983). Sequential mutations in the NS genes of influenza virus field strains. Journal of Virology 45, 547554.Google Scholar
Krystal, M., Elliott, R. M., Benz, E. W., Young, J. F. & Palese, P. (1982). Evolution of influenza A and B viruses: conservation of structural features in the hemagglutinin genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 79, 45004804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lacorte, J. G. (1974 a). Persistence of influenza virus in hamsters inoculated by intracerebral route. Memoranda Instituto Osuxildo Cruz 72, 129130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lacorte, J. G. (1974 b). Presence of influenza virus in the blood and organs of animals inoculated by the intracardiac route. Memoranda Instituto Osimldo Cruz 72, 143145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laidlaw, P. P. (1935). Epidemic influenza: a virus disease. Lancet i, 11181124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langmuir, A. D. & Schoenbaum, S. C. (1976). The epidemiology of influenza. Hospital Practitioner 11, 4956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laver, W. G., Webster, R. G. & Chu, C. M. (1984). Summary of a meeting on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 149, 108115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lvov, D. K. & Zhdanov, V. M. (1983). Persistence of genes of epidemical influenza viruses in natural populations in the USSR. Medical Biology 61, 8391.Google ScholarPubMed
Lvov, D. K., Zhdanov, V. M., Sazonov, A. A., Braude, N. A., Vladimirtoeva, E. A., Agafonova, L. V., Skljanskaja, E.I., Kaverin, N. V., Reznik, V. I., Pysina, T. V., Ošerovič, A. M., Berzin, A. A., Masnikova, I. A., Podčernjaeva, R., Klimenko, S. M., Andrejev, V. P. & Yakhno, M. A. (1978). Comparison of influenza viruses isolated from man and from whales. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56, 923930.Google ScholarPubMed
Mantle, J. & Tyrrell, D. A. J. (1973). An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha. Journal of Hygiene 71, 8995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marine, W. M., McGowan, J. E. & Thomas, J. E. (1976). Influenza detection: a prospective comparison of surveillance methods and analysis of isolates. American Journal of Epidemiology 104, 248255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marine, W. M. & Thomas, J. E. (1979). Antigenic memory to influenza A viruses in man determined by monovalent vaccines. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55, 98108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markwell, D. D. & Shortridge, K. F. (1983). Possible waterbome transmission and maintenance of influenza viruses in domestic ducks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 43, 110116.Google Scholar
Maslovsky, S. G., Neklyvdova, L. I. & Orlova, N. G. (1979). On the role of cell organoids in influenza virus reproduction. Voprosy Virusologii 24, 6170.Google Scholar
Masurel, N. (1976). Swine influenza virus and the recycling of influenza A viruses in man. Lancet ii, 244247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masurel, N., De Boer, G. F., Anker, W. J. J. & Huffels, A. D. N. H. J. (1983). Prevalence of influenza viruses A-H1N1 and A-H3N2 in swine in the Netherlands. Comparative Immunology and Microbiology of Infectious Diseases 6, 141149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masurel, N. & Heijtink, R. A. (1983). Recycling of H1N1 influenza A virus in man – a haemagglutinin antibody study. Journal of Hygiene 90, 397402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masurel, N. & Marine, W. M. (1973). Recycling of Asian and Hong Kong influenza A virus haemagglutinins in man. American Journal of Epidemiology 97, 4449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maywald, F., Bosch, F. X., Orlich, M. & Rott, R. (1982). Evidence for the contribution of the host species to the extent of antigenic variation of Nl influenza virus neuraminidase. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 172, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medvedeva, M. N., Aron, R. A. & Golubev, D. B. (1984 a). Persistent influenza virus infection in MDCK cell culture. Voprosy Virusologii 5, 536540.Google Scholar
Medvedeva, M. N., Aron, R. A. & Golubev, D. B. (1984 b). Changes in genetic properties of virus population and selection of ts mutants in persistent infection virus infection. Voprosy Virusologii 6, 675679.Google Scholar
Medvedeva, M. N., Medvedeva, T. E., Aron, R. A., Ykhnova, U. G., Simonovskaya, V. K. & Golubev, D. B. (1985). Persistent infection with influenza virus: molecular and genetic characteristics of ts mutants selected in the course of persistence. Voprosy Virusologii 1, 4650.Google Scholar
Menšik, J. (1962). Experimental infection of pregnant sows with influenza suis virus. I. Proof of virus in placental tissue and in organs of newborn piglets. Vedecke Prache – Vyzkumneho Uslavu Veterinarniho Lekanstvi v Urne 2, 3147.Google Scholar
Monto, A. S. & Maassab, H. F. (1981). Serologic responses to nonprevalent influenza A viruses during intercyclic periods. American Journal of Epidemiology 113, 236244.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, B. W., Webster, R. G., Bean, W. J., Van Wyke, K. L., Evered, M. G. & Downie, J. C. (1981). Reappearance in 1979 of a 1968 Hong Kong-like influenza virus. Virology 109, 219222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulder, J. & Masurel, N. (1958). Pre-epidemic antibody against 1957 strain of Asiatic influenza. Lancet i, 810814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naeve, C. W., Hinshaw, V. & Webster, R. G. (1984). Mutations in the Receptor Binding Site (RBS) can change the biological properties of an influenza virus. Journal of Virology 51, 507569.Google Scholar
Naeve, C. W., Webster, R. G. & Hinshaw, V. (1983). Phenotypic variation in influenza virus reassortants with identical gene constellations. Virology 128, 331340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Naikhin, A. N., Tsaritsina, I. M., Oleinikova, E. V., Syrodoeva, L. G, Korchanova, N. L., Denisov, G. M. & Shvartsman, Ya. S. (1983). The importance of antineuraminidase antibodies in resistance to influenza A and immunologic memory for their synthesis. Journal of Hygiene 91, 131138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakajima, K., Desselberger, U. & Palese, P. (1978). Recent human influenza A (HlNl) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature 274, 334339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakajima, K., Nakajima, S., Nerome, K., Takeuchi, Y., Sugiura, A. & Oya, A. (1979). Genetic relatedness of some 1978–1979 influenza HlNl strains to 1953 HlNl strain. Virology 99, 423426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakajima, K., Nakajima, S., Shortridge, K. F. & Kendal, A. P. (1982). Further genetic evidence for maintenance of early Hong Kong-like influenza A (H3N2) strains in swine until 1976. Virology 116, 562572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakamura, R. M., C., Easterday. B., Pawlisch, R. & Walker, G. L. (1972). Swine influenza: epizootiological and serological studies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 47, 481487.Google ScholarPubMed
Nariorkowski, P. A. & Black, F. L. (1974). Influenza A in an isolated population in the Amazon. Lancet ii, 13901391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nayak, D. P.D'Andrea, E. & Wettstein, F. O. (1976). Characterisation of polysomeassociated RNA from influenza virus-infected cells. Journal of Virology 20, 107116.Google Scholar
Nayak, D. P., Tobita, K., Janda, J. M., Davis, A. R. & De, B. K. (1978). Homologous interference mediated by defective interfering influenza virus derived from a temperaturesensitive mutant of influenza virus. Journal of Virology 28, 375386.Google Scholar
Nerome, K., Yoshioka, Y., Torres, C. A., Oya, A., Bachmann, P., Ottis, K. & Webster, R. G. (1984). Persistence of Q strain of H2N2 influenza virus in avian species: antigenic, biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses. Archives of Virology 81, 239250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nishikawa, F. & Sugiyama, T. (1983). Direct isolation of HlNl recombinant from a throat swab of a patient simultaneously infected with HlNl and H3N2 influenza A viruses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 18, 425427.Google Scholar
Nohinek, B., Gerhard, W. & Schulze, I. T. (1985). Characterization of host cell binding variants of influenza virus by monoclonal antibodies. Virology 143, 651656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Brien, R. J., Noble, G. R., Easterday, B.C., Kendal, A. P., Shasby, D. M., Nelson, D. B., Hattwick, M. A. W. & Dowdle, W. R. (1977). Swine-like influenza virus in a Wisconsin farm family. Journal of Infectious Diseases 136, 390396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ottis, K., Sidoli, L., Bachmann, P. A., Webster, R. G., & Kaplan, M. M. (1982). Human influenza A viruses in pigs: isolation of a H3N2 strain antigenically related to A/England/42/72 and evidence for continuous circulation of human viruses in the pig population. Archives of Virology 73, 103108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panum, P. L. (1940). Observations made During the Epidemic of Measles on the Faroe Islands in the year 1846. New York: Delta Omega Society.Google Scholar
Patterson, S. & Oxford, I.S. (1986). Analysis of antigenic determinants on internal and external proteins of influenza virus and identification of antigenic subpopulations of virions in recent field isolates using monoclonal antibodies and immunogold labelling. Archives of Virology 88, 189202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perekrest, V. V., Gavrilov, V. I., Demidova, S. A. & Berisova, S. M. (1974). A new model of persistent influenza infection in a continuous line of pig embryo kidney cells. Acta Virologica 18, 391396.Google Scholar
Popescu, A. E., Iftimovici, R. & Jacorescu, V. (1976). Serological investigations concerning the circulation of influenza viruses among men and some domestic animals in live-stock farms. Virologie 27, 217219.Google ScholarPubMed
Raiunowitz, S. G. & Huiprikar, J. (1979). The influence of defective-interfering particles of the PR-8 strain of influenza A virus on the pathogenesis of pulmonary infection in man. Journal of Infectious Diseases 140, 305319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rekart, N., Rupnik, K., Cesario, T. C. & Tilles, J. G. (1982). Prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to current strains of the H3N2 and HlNl subtypes of influenza A virus in sera collected from the elderlv in 1976. American Journal of Epidemiology 115, 587597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, J. H. & Easterday, B. C. (1979). Detection of persisting influenza virus with turkey tracheal cultures. Avian Diseases 23, 354356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romnson, J. H., Easterday, B. C. & Tumova, B. (1979). Influence of environmental stress on avian influenza virus infection. Avian Diseases 23, 346353.Google Scholar
Rogers, G. N., Daniels, R. S., Skehel, J. J., Wiley, D. C., Wang, X., Higa, H. & Paulson, J. C. (1985). Host-mediated selection of influenza virus receptor variants. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260, 73627367.Google ScholarPubMed
Rogers, G. & Paulson, J. C. (1983). Receptor determinants of human and animal influenza virus isolates: differences in receptor specificity of the H3 hemagglutinin based on species origin. Virology 127, 361373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rovnova, Z. T., Kosyakov, P. N., Isaeva, E. I., Platonova, A. L. & Melnichenko, E. I. (1978). On changes of the H3 antigenic determinant of influenza type A virus. Voprosy Virusologii 3, 282286.Google Scholar
Schild, G. C., Oxford, J. S., De Jong, J. C. & Webster, R. G. (1983). Evidence for host-cell selection of influenza virus antigenic variants. Nature 303, 706709.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schild, G. C. & Stuart-Harris, C. H. (1965). Serological epidemiological studies with influenza A viruses. Journal of Hygiene 63, 479490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholtissek, C. (1986). Molecular biological background of the species and organ specificity of influenza A viruses. Angewandte Chemie (International edition in English) 25, 4756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scholtissek, C. & Von Hoyningen-Huehne, V. (1980). Genetic relatedness of the gene which codes for nonstructural (NS) protein of different influenza A strains. Virology 102, 1320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholtissek, C., Von Hoyningen, V. & Rott, R. (1978). Genetic relatedness between the new 1977 epidemic strains (HlNl) of influenza and human influenza strains isolated between 1947 and 1957 (HlNl). Virology 98, 613617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scholtissek, C., Koennecke, I. & Rott, R. (1978). Host range recombinants of fowl plague (influenza A) virus. Virology 91, 7985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholtissek, C., Rohde, K. W. & Harms, E. (1977). Genetic relationship between an influenza A and a B virus. Journal of General Virology 37, 243247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholtissek, C., Rohde, W., Harms, E. & Rott, R. (1977). Correlation between base sequence homology of RNA segment 4 and antigenicity of the hemagglutinin of influenza viruses. Virology 79, 330336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholtissek, C., Rohde, K. W., Von Hoyningen, V. & Rott, R. (1978). On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology 87, 1320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Semkov, R. & Wilczynski, J. (1979). Detection and tissue localisation of components of the immune complex in animals infected and immunised with influenza virus. Acta Virologica 23, 5258.Google Scholar
Shilov, A. A., Kozlov, Yu. B., Kurmanova, A. G., Gorbulev, V. G., Selivanov, Ya. M., Zhdanov, V. M. & Baev, A. A. (1981). Analysis of structural divergence of individual genes of epidemic strains of influenza virus serotype HlNl. Molecular Biology 15, 10621074.Google Scholar
Shope, R. E. (1936). The incidence of neutralising antibodies for swine influenza virus in the sera of human beings of different ages. Journal of Experimental Medicine 63, 669684.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shope, R. E. (1958). Influenza. History, epidemiology and speculation. Public Health Reports 73, 165178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shoutridge, K. F. (1979). H2N2 influenza viruses in domestic ducks. Lancet i, 439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shortridge, K. F., Cherry, A. & Kendal, A. P. (1979). Further studies of the antigenic properties of H3N2 strains of influenza A virus isolated from swine in South East Asia. Journal of General Virology 44, 251254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shortridge, K. F. & Stuart-Harris, C. H. (1982). An influenza epicentre? Lancet ii, 812813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinnecker, H., Sinnecker, R. & Zilske, E. (1982). Detection of influenza A viruses by sentinel ducks in an ecological survey. Acta Virologica 26, 102104.Google Scholar
Skehel, J. J. & Waterfield, M. D. (1975). Studies on the primary structure of the influenza virus hemagglutinin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 72, 9397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slemons, R. D. & Easterday, B. C. (1978). Virus replication in the digestive tract of ducks exposed by aerosol to type A influenza. Avian Diseases 22, 367377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, W., Andrewes, C. H. & Laidlaw, P. P. (1933). A virus obtained from influenza patients. Lancet ii, 6668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smolensky, V. I., Osidze, N. G., Bogautdinov, Z. F., Panteleev, Yu. V. & Syurin, V. N. (1978). Study of the virus carrier in chicken influenza. Voprosy Virusologii iv, 411417.Google Scholar
Smorodintsev, A. A., Golubev, D. B. & Luzyanina, T. Ya. (1982). Principles of rational classification and nomenclature of human influenza A viruses. Bliollettino dell'Istituto Sieroterapico Milanese 61, 202209.Google ScholarPubMed
Smorodintsev, A. A., Golubev, D. B., Luzvanina, T. Ya. & Karpukhin, G. T. (1981 a). Improvement of the classification and nomenclature of influenza A viruses. Voprosy Virusologii 4, 499504.Google Scholar
Smorodintsev, A. A., Luzyanina, T. Ya., Aleksandrova, G. I. & Taros, L. Yr. (1981 b). Substantiation of the anthroponose nature of pandemic human influenza A viruses. Voprosy Virusologii 2, 250254.Google Scholar
Spooner, L. T. R. & Barry, R. D. (1977). Participation of DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase II in replication of influenza viruses. Nature 268, 650652.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sriram, G., Bean, W. J., Hinshaw, V. S. & Webster, R. G. (1980). Genetic diversity among avian influenza viruses. Virology 105, 592599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De St. Groth, S. F. (1977). Antigenic variation of influenza viruses. Arbeit, Paul Ehrlich lnstitut, Georg Speyer Ham & Ferdinand Blum histitut zu Frankfurt AM 77, 2134.Google Scholar
De St. Groth, S. F. & Hannoun, C. (1973). Selection of spontaneous antigenic mutants of influenza A virus (Hong Kong). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris I) 276, 19171920.Google Scholar
Stelmakh, T. A., Medvedeva, M. N. & Golubev, D. B. (1982). Analysis of specific interaction between influenza virus and cells of different sensitivity: note 2. Characteristics of influenza virus–host cell interaction in persistent infection. Revue Roumaine de Médecine: virologie 33, 4751.Google ScholarPubMed
Stuart-Harris, C. H. & Potter, C. W. (1984). The Molecular Virology and Epidemiology of Influenza. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Thompson, T. (1852). Annals of Influenza or Epidemic Catarrhal Fever in Great liriiain from 1510 to 1837. London: The Sydenham Society.Google Scholar
Thompson, R. L., Sande, M. A., Wenzel, R. P., Hoke, C. H. Jr & Gwaltney, J. M. Jr (1976). Swine influenza infections in civilians. New England Journal of Medicine 295, 714715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Timofeev-Resovsky, N. V. (1982). In Principles of Rational Classification and Nomenclature of Human Influenza A Viruses (ed. Smorodintsev, A. A.. Golubev, D. B. and Ya Luzyanina, T.). p. 61. Bolleltino dell'Istituto Sieroterapico Milanese.Google Scholar
Tobita, K. & Ohori, K. (1979). Heterotypic interference between influenza viruses A/Aichi/2/68 and B/Massaehusetts/1/71. Acta Virologica 23, 263266.Google Scholar
Top, F. H. & Russell, P. K. (1977). Swine influenza A at Fort Dix, Xew Jersey (Jan.-Feb. 1976). Journal of Infectious Diseases 136, 376380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tumova, B., Eisengarten, H. J., Skibelist-Konstantinow, T., Stumpa, A. & Webster, R. G. (1975). A duck influenza virus with haemagglutinin related to that of A/Singapore/57 (H2N2) virus. Acta Virologica 19, 261.Google ScholarPubMed
Tumova, B., Menšik, J., Stumpa, A., Fedova, D. & Pospisil, A. (1970). Serologieal evidence of a virus closely related to the human A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) strain in swine populations in Czechoslovakia in 1969–1972. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin (Reihe B) 23, 590603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallace, G. D. (1977). Swine influenza and lungworms. Journal of Infectious Diseases 135, 490492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wallace, G. D. (1979). Natural history of influenza in swine in Hawaii: prevalence of infection with A/HK/68 (H3N2) subtype virus and its variants, 1974–1977. American Journal of Veterinary Research 40, 11651168.Google Scholar
Ward, C. W. & Dopheide, T. A. (1981). Evolution of the Hong Kong influenza A subtype. Biochemical Journal 195, 337340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, C. W., Webster, R. G., Inglis, A. S. & Dopheide, T. A. (1981). Composition and sequence studies show that A/duck/Ukraine/1/63 haemagglutinin (Hav7) belongs to the Hong Kong (H3) subtype. Journal of General Virology 53, 163168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, R. G. & Campbell, C. H. (1974). Studies on the origin of pandemic influenza. IV. Selection and transmission of ‘new’ influenza viruses in vivo. Virology 62, 404413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, R. G., Hinshaw, V. S. & Bean, W. J., (1977). Antigenic shift in myxoviruses. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 164, 5768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, R. G., Hinshaw, V. S., Naeve, C. W. & Bean, W. J. (1984). Pandemics and animal influenza. In The Molecular Virology and Epidemiology of Influenza (ed. Stuart-Harris, C. H. and Potter, C. W.), pp. 4041. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Webster, R. G., Kawaoka, Y. & Bean, W. J. Jr, (1980). Molecular changes in A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5/N2) influenza virus associated with the acquisition of virulence. Virology 149, 165173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, R. G. & Laver, W. G. (1975). Antigenic Variation of Influenza Viruses. In The Influenza Viruses and Influenza (ed. Kilbourne, E. D.) pp. 287309. New York: Academic Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Whittaker, R. G. & Underwood, P. A. (1980). A mechanism for influenza subtype disappearance. Medical Hypotheses 6, 9971008.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
W.H.O. (1979). Reconsideration of influenza virus nomenclature. World Health Organization Bulletin 57, 227233.Google Scholar
Yakhno, M. A., Kendal, A. P., Zakstelskaya, L. Ya., Molibog, E. V., Shenderovicii, S. F., Oskerko, T. A., Dowdle, W. & Zhdanov, V. M. (1981). New antigenic variants of influenza A (HINl) virus isolated in the USSR in 1979. Voprosy Virusologii 2, 136141.Google Scholar
Yamane, N., Arikawa, J., Odagiri, T., Sukeno, N. & Ishida, N. (1978). Isolation of three different influenza A viruses from an individual after probable double infection with H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 31, 431434.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, J. F., Desselberger, U. & Palese, P. (1979). Evolution of human influenza A viruses in nature: sequential mutations in the genomes of new HINl isolates. Cell 18, 7383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, J. F. & Palese, P. (1979). Evolution of human influenza A viruses in nature: recombination contributes to genetic variation of HINl strains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 76, 65476551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, G. A. & Underdahl, N. R. (1949). Swine influenza as a possible factor in suckling pig mortalities. I. Seasonal occurrence in adult swine as indicated by haemagglutinin inhibitors in serum. Cornell Veterinarian 39, 105119.Google Scholar
Zakstelskaya, L. Ya., Shenderovich, S. F., Yakhno, M. A., Isachenko, V. A. & Zhdanov, V. M. (1980). Investigation of the antigenic generality of influenza A virus hemagglutinins of man and animals by the method of immunoadsorption. Soviet Progress in Virology 3, 3031.Google Scholar
Zhdanov, V. M., Solov'yev, V. & Epshsteyn, F. (1960). The Study of Influenza p. 709. Washington: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service.Google Scholar
Zuev, V. A., Mirchink, E. P. & Kharitonova, A. M. (1983). Experimental slow infection in mice. Voprosy Virusologii 24, 29.Google Scholar
Zuev, E. V., Pavlenko, R. G., Mirchink, E. P., Kharitonova, A. M., Belyaev, D. L. & Denisov, L. A. (1981). Possible ways of modelling latent influenza infection in mice. Voprosy Virusologii 3, 290295.Google Scholar
You have Access
25
Cited by