Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The persisting burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq: data of the National Surveillance System, 1990–2009

  • B. MAJEED (a1), J. SOBEL (a1), A. NAWAR (a2), S. BADRI (a2) and H. MUSLIM (a2)...

Summary

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of sand flies. To describe trends and demographics of reported VL cases, we reviewed surveillance data from 1990–2009. Reported VL incidence per 100 000 population was 2·6 in 2007, 3·1 in 2008, and 4·8 in 2009, mostly in children aged <5 years. The number of cases varied greatly in step with prevailing economic and security conditions, raising concerns about the completeness and quality of surveillance data. Nevertheless, we conclude that VL remains an important endemic disease in Iraq and that surveillance system is recovering the capacity to detect cases as the country experiences greater stability. We recommend conducting formal entomological investigations, and evaluating existing control measures.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The persisting burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq: data of the National Surveillance System, 1990–2009
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The persisting burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq: data of the National Surveillance System, 1990–2009
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The persisting burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq: data of the National Surveillance System, 1990–2009
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr B. Majeed, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Global Health, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (Email: bancomm2000@yahoo.com)

References

Hide All
1.Schleier, JJ, et al. A probabilistic risk assessment for delayed military personnel after the implementation of the ‘Leishmaniasis control programme’ at Tallil air base, Iraq. Journal of Medical Entomology 2009; 46: 693702.
2.Oshaghi, MA, et al. Vector incrimination of sand flies in the most important visceral leishmaniasis focus in Iran. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2009; 81: 572577.
3.Coleman, RE, et al. Impact of Phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. military operations at Tallil air base, Iraq: 2. Temporal and geographic distribution of sand flies. Journal of Medical Entomology 2007; 44: 2941.
4.Coleman, RE, et al. Use of diagnostics during military deployment: recent experience in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine 2009; 174: 904920.
5.Coleman, RE, et al. Impact of Phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. military operations at Tallil air base, Iraq: 1. Background, military situation, and development of a ‘Leishmaniasis control programme’. Journal of Medical Entomology 2006; 43: 647662.
6.Jassim, AK, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis control in Thi Qar governorate, Iraq, 2003. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2006; 12 (Suppl. 2): S230237.
7.Al-Saqur, IM, Abed, BK, Al-Swidi, FAK. Comparative study of focuses of visceral leishmaniasis infections in Baghdad and Wasit govrnorates. Journal of Dohuk University 2008; 11: 164172.
8.Oshaghi, MA, et al. Application of predictive degree day model for field development of sandfly of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 2009; 46: 247254.

Keywords

The persisting burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq: data of the National Surveillance System, 1990–2009

  • B. MAJEED (a1), J. SOBEL (a1), A. NAWAR (a2), S. BADRI (a2) and H. MUSLIM (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed