This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. R Ricciardi , Rising prevalence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis in hospitalized patients in the United States. Archives of Surgery 2007; 142: 624–631.
2. LC McDonald , M Owings , DB Jernigan . Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 409–415.
3. VG Loo , A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353: 2442–2449.
4. M Warny , Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet 2005; 366: 1079–1084.
5. J Pepin , Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 40: 1591–1597.
6. DM Musher , Relatively poor outcome after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis with metronidazole. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 40: 1586–1590.
7. J Pepin , Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 41: 1254–1260.
8. F Brbut , JC Petit . Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2001; 7: 405–410.
9. LV McFarland , Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection. New England Journal of Medicine 1989; 320: 204–210.
10. U Changela , Risk factors and mortality associated with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea at a VA hospital. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2004; 24: 562–566.
12. LV McFarland , CM Surawicz , WE Stamm . Risk factors for Clostridium difficile carriage and C. difficile-associated diarrhea in a cohort of hospitalized patients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1990; 162: 678–684.
15. T Noren , Molecular epidemiology of hospital-associated and community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in a Swedish county. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004; 42: 3635–3643.
17. LS Elting , Correlation between annual volume of cystectomy, professional staffing, and outcomes: a statewide, population-based study. Cancer 2005; 104: 975–984.
18. DJ Powner , M Hernandez , TE Rives . Variability among hospital policies for determining brain death in adults. Critical Care Medicine 2004; 32: 1284–1288.
19. CB Irvin , JM Fox , K Pothoven . Financial impact on emergency physicians for nonreimbursed care for the uninsur Annals of Emergency Medicine 2003; 42: 571–576.
20. D Aronsky , Accuracy of administrative data for identifying patients with pneumonia. American Journal of Medical Quality 2005; 20: 319–328.
21. DA Taub , Complications following surgical intervention for stress urinary incontinence: A national perspective. Neurourology and Urodynamics 2005; 24: 659–665.
24. VY Dombrovskiy , Facing the challenge: Decreasing case fatality rates in severe sepsis despite increasing hospitalizations. Critical Care Medicine 2005; 33: 2555–2562.
26. AM Morris , Clostridium difficile colitis. An increasingly aggressive iatrogenic disease? Archives of Surgery 2002; 137: 1096–1100.
27. RM Dallal , Fulminant Clostridium difficile: an underappreciated and increasing cause of death and complications. Annals of Surgery 2002; 235: 363–372.
28. S Dial , Risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea among hospital inpatients prescribed proton pump inhibitors: cohort and case-control studies. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004; 171: 33–38.
29. DZ Bliss , Acquisition of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients receiving tube feeding. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 129: 1012–1019.
30. B Aronsson , R Mollby , CE Nord . Antimicrobial agents and Clostridium difficile in acute enteric disease: epidemiological data from Sweden, 1980–1982. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1985; 151: 476–481.
31. JG Bartlett . Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1992; 15: 573–581.
32. RC Spencer . The role of antimicrobial agents in the aetiology of Clostridium difficile associated disease. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1998; 41 (Suppl. C): 21–27.
34. SM Pear , Decrease in nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea by restricting clindamycin use. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994; 120: 272–277.
35. TD Cartmill , Management and control of a large outbreak of diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile. Journal of Hospital Infection 1994; 27: 1–15.
36. FJ Tedesco , RW Barton , DH Alpers . Clindamycin-associated colitis. A prospective study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1974; 81: 429.
37. C Thomas , M Stevenson , TV Riley . Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2003; 51: 1339–1350.
38. ER Dubberke , ICD-9 codes and surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 1576–1579.
39. D Zoutman , BD Ford . The relationship between hospital infection surveillance and control activities and antibiotic-resistant pathogen rates. American Journal of Infection Control 2005; 33: 1–5.