1.Diekema DJ, et al. Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997–1999. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 32 (Suppl 2): 114–132.
2.Kirkland KB, et al. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 1999; 20: 725–730.
3.Kock R, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): burden of disease and control challenges in Europe. Eurosurveillance 2010; 15: 19688.
4.Pittet D, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infections. Secular trends in rates, mortality, and contribution to total hospital deaths. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 1177–1184.
5.von Eiff C, et al. Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 11–16.
6.Wertheim HF, et al. Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers. Lancet 2004; 364: 703–705.
7.Blok HE, et al. Role of healthcare workers in outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a 10-year evaluation from a Dutch university hospital. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 2003; 24: 679–685.
8.Tammelin A, et al. Nasal and hand carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in staff at a Department for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: endogenous or exogenous source? Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 2003; 24: 686–689.
9.Lu PL, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage, infection and transmission in dialysis patients, healthcare workers and their family members. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2008; 23: 1659–1665.
10.Mollema FP, et al. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to household contacts. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010; 48: 202–207.
11.Wagenvoort JH, et al. Risk of re-introduction of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into the hospital by intrafamilial spread from and to healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection 2005; 59: 67–68.
12.Schwarzkopf R, et al. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in orthopaedic surgeons and their patients: a prospective cohort controlled study. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2010; 92: 1815–1819.
13.Elie-Turenne MC, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare professionals in an urban teaching hospital. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology 2010; 31: 574–580.
14.Suffoletto BP, et al. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in emergency department personnel. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2008; 52: 529–533.
15.Peacock SJ, et al. Determinants of acquisition and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in infancy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 5718–5725.
16.Olsen K, et al. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, gender and smoking status. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. Published online: 3 August 2011; doi: 10.1007/s10096-011-1331-x.
17.Sangvik M, et al. Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011; 49: 4213–4218.
18.Jacobsen BK, et al. Cohort profile: The Tromsø Study. International Journal of Epidemiology. Published online: 21 March 2011; doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr049.
19.Statistics Norway. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2008. Labour Market (http://www.ssbno), 2009, pp. 205–229.
20.van Belkum A, et al. Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage types. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 1820–1826.
21.Haldorsen B, et al. Nasal and throat swab cultures for the assessment of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and carriage. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study. European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), 2009. Helsinki. Abstract number 1150.
22.Strommenger B, et al. spa typing of Staphylococcus aureus as a frontline tool in epidemiological typing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 574–581.
23.Harmsen D, et al. Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 5442–5448.
24.Sakwinska O, et al. Ecological temporal stability of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010; 48: 2724–2728.
25.Køber T, Vigran Å.Samfunnsspeilet no. 2, 2011 [in Norwegian]. Statistics Norway (http://www.ssbno/), 2011.
27.Calfee DP. The epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Infusion Nursing 2011; 34: 359–364.
28.Skov R, et al. Update on the prevention and control of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Published online: 9 January 2012; doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.09.029.
29.Lamaro-Cardoso J, et al. Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in infants attending day care centers in Brazil. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 3991–3997.
30.Statistics Norway. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2008. Education (http://www.ssbno) 2009; pp. 157–188.
31.Fenner L, et al. Molecular epidemiology of invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains circulating at a Swiss University Hospital. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2008; 27: 623–626.
32.Grundmann H, et al. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis. PLoS Medicine 2010; 7: e1000215.
33.Gorwitz RJ, et al. Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001–2004. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197: 1226–1234.
34.Olsen K, et al. The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus nasal and throat carriage in a large community-based population in Northern Norway. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study. European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 2009. Helsinki. Abstract number 1678.
35.Pfingsten-Wurzburg S, et al. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents in northern Germany. Journal of Hospital Infection 2011; 78: 108–112.
36.NORM/NORM-VET 2008. Usage of antimicrobial agents and occurence of antimicrobial resistance in Norway. Tromsø/Oslo, 2009.