Barr, IG, et al.
Epidemiological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of seasonal influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B influenza viruses: basis for the WHO recommendation on the composition of influenza vaccines for use in the 2009–2010 Northern Hemisphere season. Vaccine
2009; 5: 1156–1167.
Sullivan, SG, Feng, S, Cowling, BJ. Potential of the test-negative design for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review. Expert Review of Vaccines
2014 (in press).
Jackson, ML, Nelson, JC. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness. Vaccine
2013; 17: 2165–2168.
Griffin, MR, et al.
Effectiveness of non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A vaccines for preventing pandemic influenza acute respiratory illness visits in 4 U.S.
communities. PLoS ONE
2011; 6: e23085.
Skowronski, DM, Gilbert, M, Tweed, SA. Effectiveness of vaccine against medical consultation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza: results from a sentinel physician pilot project in British Columbia, 2004–2005. Canada Communicable Disease Report
2005, 18: 181–191.
Cowling, BJ, et al.
Incidence of influenza virus infections in children in Hong Kong in a three year randomised placebo-controlled vaccine study, 2009–12. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2014, 4: 517–524.
Jackson, LA, et al.
Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors. International Journal of Epidemiology
2006, 5: 337–344.
Jurek, AM, et al.
Proper interpretation of non-differential misclassification effects: expectations vs observations. International Journal of Epidemiology
2005, 34: 680–687.
Mansournia, MA, Hernan, MA, Greenland, S. Matched designs and causal diagrams. International Journal of Epidemiology
2013; 42: 860–869.
Rothman, KJ, Greenland, S, Lash, TL. Design Strategies to Improve Study Accuracy. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
Breslow, NE, Day, NE. Statistical methods in Cancer research. International Agency for Research in Cancer
1980; 1: 249–250.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn.
Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2000.
Efron, B. Logistic regression, survival analysis and the Kaplan-Meier curve. Journal of the American Statistical Association
1988; 8: 414–425.
Tay, EL, et al.
Exploring a proposed WHO method to determine thresholds for seasonal influenza surveillance. PLoS ONE
2013; 8: e77244.
Kissling, E, et al.
I-MOVE multi-centre case control study 2010–11: overall and stratified estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe. PLoS ONE
2011; 6: e27622.
Osterholm, MT, et al.
Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases
2011; 12: 36–44.
Andrews, N, et al.
Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2012/13 end of season results. Eurosurveillance
2014; 19: 5–13.
Carville, KS, et al.
Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine
2015; 33: 341–345.
McLean, HQ, Meece, JK, Belongia, EA. Influenza vaccination and risk of hospitalization among adults with laboratory confirmed influenza illness. Vaccine
2014; 32: 453–457.
Skowronski, DM, et al.
Influenza A/subtype and B/lineage effectiveness estimates for the 2011–2012 trivalent vaccine: cross-season and cross-lineage protection with unchanged vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2014; 210: 126–137.
McDonald, SA, et al.
An evidence synthesis approach to estimating the incidence of seasonal influenza in the netherlands. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
2013; 8: 33–41.
Orenstein, EW, et al.
Methodological issues regarding the use of three observational study designs to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness. International Journal of Epidemiology
2007; 3: 623–631.
Cowling, BJ, et al.
The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalizations in children in Hong Kong, 2009–2013. Vaccine
2014; 41: 5278–5284.
Sullivan, SG, Tay, EL, Kelly, H. Variable definitions of the influenza season and their impact on vaccine effectiveness estimates. Vaccine
2013; 31: 4280–4283.
Wu, P, et al.
Excess mortality associated with influenza A and B virus in Hong Kong, 1998–2009. Journal of Infectious Diseases
2012; 206: 1862–1871.
Brockwell, PJ, Davis, RA. Time Series: Theory and Methods. Springer, New York, 1991.
de Mello, WA, et al.
The dilemma of influenza vaccine recommendations when applied to the tropics: the Brazilian case examined under alternative scenarios. PLoS ONE
2009; 4: e5095.
Koul, PA, et al.
Differences in influenza seasonality by latitude, Northern India. Emerging Infections Diseases
2014; 20: 1723–1726.
Saha, S, et al.
Influenza seasonality and vaccination timing in tropical and subtropical areas of southern and south-eastern Asia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization
2014; 92: 318–330.
Yu, H, et al.
Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data. PLoS Medicine
2013; 10: e1001552.
Rothman, KJ, Mosquin, PL. Sparse-data bias accompanying overly fine stratification in an analysis of beryllium exposure and lung cancer risk. Annals of Epidemiology
2013; 23: 43–48.
Greenland, S, Schwartzbaum, JA, Finkle, WD. Problems due to small samples and sparse data in conditional logistic regression analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology
2000; 151: 531–539.
Greenland, S. Bayesian perspectives for epidemiological research. II. Regression analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology
2007; 36: 195–202.