Skip to main content
×
Home

Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

  • P. K. BISWAS (a1), M. Z. ISLAM (a1), S. K. SHIL (a2), R. K. CHAKRABORTY (a3), S. S. U. AHMED (a4) and J. P. CHRISTENSEN (a5)...
Summary
SUMMARY

Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July–September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were analysed by matched-pair analysis and multivariable conditional logistic regression. Feeding animals with uprooted and unwashed grass [odds ratio (OR) 41·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·7–458·8, P=0·003], and feeding water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (OR 22·2, 95% CI 1·2–418·7, P=0·039) were independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr P. K. Biswas, Department of Microbiology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. (Email: biswaspk2000@yahoo.com)
References
Hide All
1. Hanna PC, Ireland JA. Understanding Bacillus anthracis pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology 1999; 7: 180182.
2. Bales ME, et al. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigation, 1950–2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 11631174.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Anthrax in animals (http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0112sp.htm), Rome, 2001. Accessed 5 December 2010.
4. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).Anthrax. In: The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals . Paris: OIE, 2008, pp. 135144.
5. Aikembayev AM, et al. Historical distribution and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 789796.
6. Lindeque PM, Turnbull PCB. Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 1994; 61: 7183.
7. Hugh-Jones M. 1996–97 Global anthrax report. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1999; 87: 189191.
8. Macher A. Industry-related outbreak of human anthrax, Massachusetts, 1868. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 1182.
9. Mongoh MN, et al. Risk factors associated with anthrax outbreak in animals in North Dakota, 2005: A retrospective case-control study. Public Health Reports 2008; 123: 352359.
10. Durrheim DN, et al. Epidemiologic questions from anthrax outbreak, hunter valley, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 840842.
11. Fasanella A, et al. Severe anthrax outbreaks in Italy in 2004: considerations on factors involved in the spread of infection. New Microbiologica 2010; 33: 8386.
12. Lewerin SS, et al. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd – 1st case in 27 years: Case report. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2010; 52: 7.
13. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). World Animal Health information database (WAHID) Interface (http://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=home), Paris, 2011. Accessed 23 August 2011.
14. Vijaikumar M, Thappa DM, Karthikeyan K. Cutaneous anthrax: an endemic outbreak in South India. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2002; 48: 225226.
15. Rao GR, et al. An outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in a non-endemic district – Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 2005; 71: 102105.
16. Ray TK, Hutin YJ, Murhekar MV. Cutaneous anthrax, West Bengal, India, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 497499.
17. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B).Cutaneous anthrax outbreaks in two districts of North-Western Bangladesh, August–October, 2009. Health and Science Bulletin 2009; 7: 18.
18. Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) & National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh. Anthrax update on 28 October 2010 (http://www.iedcr.org/images/Healthmessages/Anthrax_Update_last.pdf), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 30 November 2010.
19. Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) & National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh. Anthrax clinical guideline – guideline for management of cutaneous anthrax – case definition (http://www.iedcr.org/images/Healthmessages/Anthrax_Clinical%20guideline.pdf), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 30 November 2010.
20. Kamal MM. A review on cattle reproduction in Bangladesh. International Journal of Dairy Science 2010; 5: 245252.
21. Gracey JF, Collins DS, Huey RJ. Meat Hygiene, 10th edn. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1999, 768 pp.
22. Saile E, Koehler TM. Bacillus anthracis multiplication, persistence, and genetic exchange in the rhizosphere of grass plants. Applied Microbiology 2006; 72: 31683174.
23. Prakash V. Status of vultures in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, with special reference to population crash in Gyps species. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 1999; 96: 365378.
24. Pain D, et al. Causes and effects of temporospatial declines of Gyps vultures in Asia. Conservation Biology 2003; 17: 661671.
25. Oaks JL, et al. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 2004; 427: 630633.
26. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). Combined team of ICDDR,B and government of Bangladesh investigators reveal dynamics of anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh during 2009–2010 (http://www.icddrb.org/media-centre/news/2203-combined-team), Dhaka, 2010. Accessed 25 August 2011.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 28 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 238 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.