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Saxena, Vandana Bolling, Bethany G. and Wang, Tian 2017. West Nile Virus. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, Vol. 37, Issue. 2, p. 243.
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Pugh, Jason L. Foster, Sarah A. Sukhina, Alona S. Petravic, Janka Uhrlaub, Jennifer L. Padilla-Torres, Jose Hayashi, Tomonori Nakachi, Kei Smithey, Megan J. and Nikolich-Žugich, Janko 2016. Acute systemic DNA damage in youth does not impair immune defense with aging. Aging Cell, Vol. 15, Issue. 4, p. 686.
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Khan, Erum Farooqi, Joveria Q. Barr, Kelli L. Prakoso, Dhani Nasir, Amna Kanji, Akbar Shakoor, Sadia Malik, Faisal Riaz Hasan, Rumina Lednicky, John A. and Long, Maureen T. 2016. Flaviviruses as a Cause of Undifferentiated Fever in Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Preliminary Report. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 4,
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Gorchakov, Rodion Murray, Kristy O. Yan, Chris and Garcia, Melissa N. 2013. Persistence of Detectable Immunoglobulin M Antibodies Up to 8 Years After Infection with West Nile Virus. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 89, Issue. 5, p. 996.
Ocquidant, Philippe Charlin, Cyril Desprès, Philippe Delatte, Hélène Larrieu, Sophie Michault, Alain Roger, Matthieu Brottet, Elise Cardinale, Eric Camuset, Guillaume and Lepec, Richard 2013. A Fatal Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection in a Traveler Returning from Madagascar: Clinical, Epidemiological and Veterinary Investigations. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 89, Issue. 2, p. 211.
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Verma, Saguna Lo, Yeung Chapagain, Moti Lum, Stephanie Kumar, Mukesh Gurjav, Ulziijargal Luo, Haiyan Nakatsuka, Austin and Nerurkar, Vivek R. 2009. West Nile virus infection modulates human brain microvascular endothelial cells tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules: Transmigration across the in vitro blood-brain barrier. Virology, Vol. 385, Issue. 2, p. 425.
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Murray, Kristy O. Baraniuk, S. Resnick, M. Arafat, R. Kilborn, C. Shallenberger, R. York, T.L. Martinez, D. Malkoff, M. Elgawley, N. McNeely, W. and Khuwaja, S.A. 2008. Clinical Investigation of Hospitalized Human Cases of West Nile Virus Infection in Houston, Texas, 2002–2004. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 167.
Purtha, Whitney E. Myers, Nancy Mitaksov, Vesselin Sitati, Elizabeth Connolly, Janet Fremont, Daved H. Hansen, Ted H. and Diamond, Michael S. 2007. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes protect against lethal West Nile virus encephalitis. European Journal of Immunology, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 1845.
Armah, Henry B. Wang, Guoji Omalu, Bennet I. Tesh, Robert B. Gyure, Kymberly A. Chute, Dennis J. Smith, Roger D. Dulai, Paul Vinters, Harry V. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K. and Wiley, Clayton A. 2007. Systemic Distribution of West Nile Virus Infection: Postmortem Immunohistochemical Study of Six Cases. Brain Pathology, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 354.
Meyer, Tamra E. Bull, Lara M. Holmes, Kelly Cain Pascua, Rhia F. Travassos da Rosa, Amelia Gutierrez, Christian R. Corbin, Tracie Woodward, Jennifer L. Taylor, Jeffrey P. Tesh, Robert B. and Murray, Kristy O. 2007. West Nile Virus Infection among the Homeless, Houston, Texas1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 10, p. 1500.
We conducted a nested case-control study to determine potential risk factors for developing encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Retrospective medical chart reviews were completed for 172 confirmed WNV cases hospitalized in Houston between 2002 and 2004. Of these cases, 113 had encephalitis, including 17 deaths, 47 had meningitis, and 12 were fever cases; 67% were male. Homeless patients were more likely to be hospitalized from WNV compared to the general population. A multiple logistic regression model identified age [odds ratio (OR) 1·1, P<0·001], history of hypertension, including those cases taking hypertension-inducing drugs (OR 2·9, P=0·012), and history of cardiovascular disease (OR 3·5, P=0·061) as independent risk factors for developing encephalitis from WNV infection. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity (being black) (OR 12·0, P<0·001), chronic renal disease (OR 10·6, P<0·001), hepatitis C virus (OR 23·1, P=0·0013), and immunosuppression (OR 3·9, P=0·033) were identified as risk factors for death from WNV infection.
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