1.Kornum JB, et al. Obesity and risk of subsequent hospitalization with pneumonia. European Respiratory Journal 2010; 36: 1330–1336.
2.Fry AM, et al. Trends in hospitalizations for pneumonia among persons aged 65 years or older in the United State, 1988–2002. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 294: 2712–2719.
3.Thomsen RW, et al. Rising incidence and persistently high mortality of hospitalized pneumonia: a 10-year population-based study in Denmark. Journal of Internal Medicine 2006; 259: 410–417.
4.Trotter CL, et al. Increasing hospital admissions for pneumonia, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 727–733.
5.Lipsky BA, et al. Risk factors for acquired pneumonococcal infections. Archives of Internal Medicine 1986; 146: 2179–2185.
6.Almirall J, et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. European Respiratory Journal 1999; 13: 349–355.
7.Paffenbarger RS, et al. Energy expenditure, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure level as related to death from specific diseases. In: Baik et al. 2000. A prospective study of age and lifestyle factors in relation to community-acquired pneumonia in US men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152: 264–171.
8.Fernadez-Sola J, et al. High alcohol intake as a risk and prognostic factor for community-acquired pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 1649–1654.
9.Adams HG, Jordan C. Infections in the alcoholic. Medical Clinics of North America 1984; 68: 179–200.
10.Formiguera X, Canton A. Obesity: epidemiology and clinical aspects. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology 2004; 18: 1125–1146.
11.Baik I, et al. A prospective study of age and lifestyle factors in relation to community-acquired pneumonia in US men and women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000; 160: 3082–3088.
12.Inoue Y, et al. Risk and protective factors related to mortality from pneumonia among middle-age and elderly community residents: the JACC study. Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 17: 194–202.
13.Blumentals WA, et al. Body mass index and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia in a UK primary care cohort. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2011; 6: 28–36.
15.Plant AJ, Condon JR, Durling G. Northern Territory Department of Health and Community Services, 1995.
16.AIHW. Australian hospital statistics 2005–06. Health Services series no. 30, cat. no. HSE50. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007.
17.Penm E. Cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 2004–5. AIHW cat. no. CVD41. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2008.
18.Hoy W, et al. Quantifying the excess risk for proteinuria, hypertension and diabetes in Australian Aborigines: comparisons of profiles in three remote communities in the Northern Territory with those in the AusDiab study. Indigenous Health 2007; 31: 177–183.
19.Hoy WE, et al. Renal disease, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Ethnicity and Disease 2006; 16: 2.
20.Wang Z, Hoy W. Hypertension, dyslipidaemia, body mass index, diabetes and smoking status in Aboriginal Australians in a remote community. Ethnicity and Disease 2003; 13: 324–330.
21.Wang Z, Hoy WE. Waist circumference, body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal people. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 58: 888–893.
22.Wang Z, Hoy WE. Body size measurements as predictors of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28: 1580–1584.
23.NHLBI Obesity Education Innitiative. The practical guide: identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. National Institute of Health (NIH publication no. 00-4084), 2000.
24.StataCorp. Stata statistical software: release 12.0. Colleage Station, Texas 77845 USA. 2011.
25.Nieman DC. Exercise, infection, and immunity. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1994; 15: S131–S141.
26.Health GW, Macera CA, Nieman DC. Exercise and upper respiratory tract infection: isthere a relationship? Sports Medicine 1992; 14: 353–365.
27.Neuman MI, Willet WC, Curhan GC. Physical activity and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US women. American Journal of Medicine 2010; 123: 281.e287–281.e211.
28.LaCroix AZ, et al. Prospective study of pneumonia hospitalizations and mortality of U.S. older people: the role of chronic conditions, health behaviours, and nutritional status. Public Health Reports 1989; 104: 350–360.
29.Saliva ME, et al. Disability and cognitive impairment are risk factors for pneumonia-related mortality on older adults. Public Health Reports 1993; 108: 314–322.
30.Tanaka S, et al. Impaired immunity in obesity: suppressed but reversible lymphocyte responsiveness. International Journal of Obesity 1993; 17: 631–636.
31.Gottschlich MM, et al. Significance of obesity on nutritional, immunologic, hormonal and clinical outcome parameters in burns. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1993; 93: 1261–1268.
32.Amirall J, et al. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study. European Respiratory Journal 2008; 31: 1274–1284.
33.Schnoor M, et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in German adults: the impact of children in the household. Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 1389–1397.