Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Social contacts of school children and the transmission of respiratory-spread pathogens

  • R. T. MIKOLAJCZYK (a1), M. K. AKMATOV (a1), S. RASTIN (a1) and M. KRETZSCHMAR (a1)

Summary

Empirical data about contact frequencies of children is needed for estimating parameters in mathematical modelling studies that investigate the effect of targeting influenza intervention to children. A survey about the social contacts of school children was conducted in a primary school in Germany. The distribution of the daily numbers of contacts was stratified by age of the contacted person and by weekday. A negative binomial regression analysis was performed to investigate factors that influence contact behaviour. Using logistic regression analysis we examined the relationship between the numbers of private contacts and having been ill in the last 6 months. We computed effective contact numbers to take the heterogeneity in contact behaviour into account in assessing the contribution of children's contacts to the overall transmission of an infection. The possible effects of intervention measures such as school closure and vaccination on the transmission of respiratory-spread agents to other age groups are discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Social contacts of school children and the transmission of respiratory-spread pathogens
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Social contacts of school children and the transmission of respiratory-spread pathogens
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Social contacts of school children and the transmission of respiratory-spread pathogens
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr M. Kretzschmar, School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, PO Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany. (Email: mirjam.kretzschmar@uni-bielefeld.de)

References

Hide All
1. Halloran, ME, et al. Community interventions and the epidemic prevention potential. Vaccine 2002; 20: 32543262.
2. Longini, IM Jr., et al. Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 159: 623633.
3. Doyle, A, et al. Influenza pandemic preparedness in France: modelling the impact of interventions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006; 60: 399404.
4. Ferguson, NM, et al. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature 2006; 442: 448452.
5. Germann, TC, et al. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2006; 103: 59355940.
6. Bansal, S, Pourbohloul, B, Meyers, LA. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs. PLoS Med 2006; 3(10).
7. Wallinga, J, Edmunds, WJ, Kretzschmar, M. Perspective: human contact patterns and the spread of airborne infectious diseases. Trends in Microbiology 1999; 7: 372377.
8. Edmunds, WJ, O'Callaghan, CJ, Nokes, DJ. Who mixes with whom? A method to determine the contact patterns of adults that may lead to the spread of airborne infections. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 1997; 264: 949957.
9. Edmunds, W, et al. Mixing patterns and the spread of close-contact infectious diseases. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006; 3: 10.
10. Wallinga, J, Teunis, P, Kretzschmar, M. Using data on social contacts to estimate age-specific transmission parameters for respiratory-spread infectious agents. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 164: 936944.
11. Beutels, P, et al. Social mixing patterns for transmission models of close contact infections: exploring self-evaluation and diary-based data collection through a web-based interface. Epidemiology and Infection 2006; 134: 11581166.
12. Tellier, R. Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 16571662.
13. Hill, AN, Longini, IM Jr.. The critical vaccination fraction for heterogeneous epidemic models. Mathematical Biosciences 2003; 181: 85106.
14. Brownstein, JS, Kleinman, KP, Mandl, KD. Identifying pediatric age groups for influenza vaccination using a real-time regional surveillance system. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 162: 686693.
15. Smith, NM, et al. Prevention and Control of Influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports. Recommended Reports 2006; 55 (RR-10): 142.
16. Halloran, ME, Longini, IM Jr.. Public health. Community studies for vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza. Science 2006; 311: 615616.
17. Longini, IM Jr., Halloran, ME. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 161: 303306.
18. Hethcote, HW. An age-structured model for pertussis transmission. Mathematical Biosciences 1997; 145: 89136.
19. Edmunds, WJ, et al. The pre-vaccination epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in Europe: implications for modelling studies. Epidemiology and Infection 2000; 125: 635650.
20. Farrington, CP, Whitaker, HJ. Estimation of effective reproduction numbers for infectious diseases using serological survey data. Biostatistics 2003; 4: 621632.
21. Kanaan, MN, Farrington, CP. Matrix models for childhood infections: a Bayesian approach with applications to rubella and mumps. Epidemiology and Infection 2005; 133: 10091021.
22. Anderson, RM, May, RM. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Transmission and Control. Oxford University Press, 1991.
23. Mills, CE, Robins, JM, Lipsitch, M. Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Nature 2004; 432: 904906.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed