Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Source attribution of human salmonellosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

  • A. R. DOMINGUES (a1), S. M. PIRES (a1), T. HALASA (a2) and T. HALD (a1)

Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating raw eggs, and eating in restaurants were the most important risk factors for salmonellosis. Sub-analyses by serotype were performed when enough studies were available.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Miss A. R. Domingues, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2. PS Mead , Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 607625.

6. MA Wallace , G Thompson . Salmonellosis in a nursing home patient on enteral feeding. American Journal of Infection Control 2006; 34: 97.

8. SM Pires , Attributing the human disease burden of foodborne infections to specific sources. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2009; 6: 417424.

10. RJ Stafford , Population-attributable risk estimates for risk factors associated with Campylobacter infection, australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 895901.

17. M Borenstein . Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009.

18. T Halasa , Meta-analysis of dry cow management for dairy cattle. Part 1. Protection against new intramammary infections. Journal of Dairy Science 2009; 92: 31343149.

19. S Duval , R Tweedie . A nonparametric ‘trim and fill’ method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association 2000; 95: 8998.

20. CB Begg , M Mazumdar . Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994; 50: 10881101.

21. M Egger , Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 629634.

25. T Hald , A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. Risk Analysis 2004; 24: 255269.

26. SM Pires , T Hald . Assessing the differences in public health impact of salmonella subtypes using a bayesian microbial subtyping approach for source attribution. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2010; 7: 143151.

27. K Ekdahl , Travel-associated non-typhoidal salmonellosis: geographical and seasonal differences and serotype distribution. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2005; 11: 138144.

29. AH Havelaar , Attribution of foodborne pathogens using structured expert elicitation. Foodborne Pathogens and Diseases 2008; 5: 649659.

30. JD Greig , A Ravel . Analysis of foodborne outbreak data reported internationally for source attribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2009; 130: 7787.

33. JA Painter , Recipes for foodborne outbreaks: a scheme for categorizing and grouping implicated foods. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 2009; 6: 12591264.

38. SY Rowe , Breast-feeding decreases the risk of sporadic salmonellosis among infants in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S262S270.

39. MK Glynn , Prior antimicrobial agent use increases the risk of sporadic infections with multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium: a FoodNet case-control study, 1996–1997. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S227S236.

41. A Gupta , Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2003; 188: 17071716.

43. L Indar-Harrinauth , Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 in the Caribbean: case-control study in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 32: 890896.

44. J Sobel , The pandemic of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 reaches Utah: a complex investigation confirms the need for continuing rigorous control measures. Epidemiology and Infection 2000; 125: 18.

32. E Delarocque-Astagneau , Risk factors for the occurrence of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections in children in France: a national case-control study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000; 31: 488492.

47. H Schmid , Risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis in Switzerland. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease 1996; 15: 725732.

49. CW Hedberg , Role of egg consumption in sporadic Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections in Minnesota. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993; 167: 107111.

60. DN Taylor , Salmonella dublin infections in the United States, 1979–1980. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1982; 146: 322327.

62. K Molbak , J Neimann . Risk factors for sporadic infection with Salmonella enteritidis, Denmark, 1997–1999. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 156: 654661.

63. MJ Trepka , An increase in sporadic and outbreak-associated Salmonella enteritidis infections in Wiscon-sin: the role of eggs. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999; 180: 12141219.

64. AC Kimura , Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S244S252.

65. TW Hennessy , Egg consumption is the principal risk factor for sporadic Salmonella serotype Heidelberg infections: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S237S243.

66. J Mermin , Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38 (Suppl. 3): S253S261.

67. G Kapperud , H Stenwig , J Lassen . Epidemiology of Salmonella typhimurium O: 4–12 infection in Norway: evidence of transmission from an avian wildlife reservoir. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 147: 774782.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 31 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 141 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.